Dear friends and colleagues,  


We start 2022 with a new issue of Global Strategy Journal on knowledge, innovation, and learning. This is available at In it, you can find a set of articles accepted in the regular submission process that provide the latest thinking on the topic.  


The issue opens with an overview of the knowledge-based view (Grant & Phene). It continues with two studies on innovation (Fu, Li, Li, & Chesbrough; Freixanet & Rialp) and two on R&D (Castellani, Lavoratori, Perri, & Scalera; Belderbos, Lokshin, Boone, & Jacob). It concludes with two articles on learning (Hertenstein & Alon; Fuentelsaz, Garrido, & Gonz¨¢lez).  


For those interested in ownership, we have an open call for papers for a special issue on Ownership and Global Strategy with a deadline of June 15, 2022. More details are available here: 


If you want to read what is forthcoming at GSJ, please check it here  


We look forward to receiving your best work for consideration for publication.  


Best wishes,  

Gabriel R. G. Benito, Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, and Ram Mudambi 

Co-editors of Global Strategy Journal 


The knowledge based view and global strategy: Past impact and future potential 

Robert Grant, Anupama Phene 

The centrality of knowledge to the global arena has allowed scholars in this area to play a leading role in developing the knowledge-based view (KBV) of the firm. We propose that broadening the KBV to take account of the social constructionist approach to knowledge and the multilevel nature of knowledge processes, can build a more serviceable knowledge-based theory of global strategy. Specifically, we urge research in three directions, the exploration of a KBV of economic organization in a global context, which would encompass macro institutions as well as individuals; focus on the foundational construct of knowledge that would integrate human and machine learning in the global arena; and the creation of a comprehensive framework of knowledge types and knowledge processes across space. 


When do latecomer firms undertake international open innovation: Evidence from China 

Xiaolan Fu, Yawen Li, Jizhen Li, Henry Chesbrough 

While there is a wealth of literature on the benefits of open innovation (OI), little is known about when do latecomer firms undertake international open innovation (IOI) given the related benefits and challenges. This study examines how the characteristics of firms and their surrounding environment affect their engagement with international collaboration. Demand side factors appear to be more significant drivers of IOI in latecomer firms than the pursuit of technology leadership. Market expansion-oriented innovation strategy, international orientation, previous collaboration experiences, and technology intensity of the industry are found to be associated with a high degree of IOI; firms with stronger R&D capacity tend to be less open to international collaboration. Findings from this research are helpful for managers interested in using IOI to promote their companies' innovation performance, and to managers of MNEs or policy makers who would like to understand the international innovation strategy of Chinese firms. 


Disentangling the relationship between internationalization, incremental and radical innovation, and firm performance 

Joan Freixanet, Josep Rialp 

This study examines the impact of firm internationalization on incremental and radical product innovation, and the effects of these innovation facets on sales growth. We use a sample of 1,064 Spanish manufacturers over the period 2008¨C2014. We find a positive relationship between higher international scope and greater ex-post radical innovation output, and an inverted U-shape relationship between export intensity and both innovation forms. We also find a positive relationship between incremental innovation and sales growth for performance leaders, and negative for performance laggards. Conversely, radical innovation boosts performance laggards' sales growth, but reduces that of performance leaders. The study supports and qualifies the learning-by-exporting effect, by identifying some firm-specific factors that shape the relationship between internationalization, innovation, and firm performance. 


International connectivity and the location of multinational enterprises' knowledge©\intensive activities: Evidence from US metropolitan areas 

Davide Castellani, Katiuscia Lavoratori, Alessandra Perri, Vittoria G. Scalera 

International connectivity is a multidimensional construct that plays a pivotal role in attracting the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) by facilitating intra-firm coordination and access to external resources. We conceptualize how the different dimensions of international connectivity determine the location of MNEs' knowledge-intensive activities, with a focus on Research and Development (R&D) laboratories and Headquarter units (HQ). By analyzing 3,101 greenfield investments of MNEs in US Metropolitan Statistical Areas, we show that R&D activities are attracted toward areas connected to the rest of the world by international networks of inventors. Moreover, we find that infrastructures which ensure the mobility of people across borders, and greater connectivity through advanced producer services are key location factors for HQ activities. 


Top management team international diversity and the performance of international R&D 

Ren¨¦ Belderbos, Boris Lokshin, Christophe Boone, Jojo Jacob 

We investigate how international diversity in Top Management Teams (TMTs) contributes to the effectiveness of geographically dispersed R&D strategies in enhancing innovation performance. Both international work experience and nationality diversity may enhance the effectiveness of geographically dispersed R&D when there is alignment between the countries of work experience and nationality of TMT members, on the one hand, and firms' R&D locations on the other. This influence is stronger for international work experience diversity than for nationality diversity, as the former provides more task-related knowledge to coordinate R&D activities and is less associated with the risk of social categorization. We find partial support for these notions in a panel analysis of the innovation performance of 165 leading MNCs based in Europe, Japan, and the United States. 


A learning portal model of emerging markets multinationals 

Peter Hertenstein, Ilan Alon 

The purpose of the article is to explain the mechanisms underlying the internationalization springboard strategies of China's emerging multinationals in the automobile industry. Using a unique combination of location bound (country-specific) and non-location bound (firm-specific) advantages, companies in this industry have overcome their latecomer disadvantages by exploring knowledge from mature markets through backward and forward integration of the value chain, and exploiting this knowledge to enhance their competitive position, first at home, then in emerging markets and later in developed countries. We test and refine springboarding theory and propose the learning portal model. The learning portal model can be used as a new theory of emerging markets multinationals beyond China and the automobile industry. 


Speed of institutional change and subsidiary performance: The moderating impact of home and host country learning 

Lucio Fuentelsaz, Elisabet Garrido, Minerva Gonz¨¢lez 

This research examines the role played by home and host country learning in the relationship between the speed of institutional change and subsidiary performance. We posit a negative relationship between the speed of institutional change in the host country and subsidiary performance. We also argue that this relationship is contingent on the institutional learning that parent multinationals (MNEs) have previously attained in other countries. By integrating the dynamic institution-based view and the organizational learning literature, our analysis highlights the key role that abilities and skills developed by MNEs to face rapid institutional changes have on the host countries in which they operate. We test our theoretical model using a sample of 342 subsidiaries from 68 MNEs operating in emerging and developed economies during 2001¨C2017. 


  Professor, International Business and Strategy, Northeastern University    

   Co-editor, Global Strategy Journal      


Recent publications:    

   Enriching internationalization process theory: insights from the study of emerging market multinationals. JIM 

   Multinationals misbehavior. JWB  

   Implementing the United Nations¡¯ Sustainable Development Goals in international business. JIBS   

   State ownership and internationalization: The advantage and disadvantage of stateness. JWB   

   Innovating for the Middle of the Pyramid in Emerging Countries. Cambridge University Press   

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