One of the minor blessings (for me) in this Covid-disrupted year is that I have had time to update the psychic distance stimuli scales that Amal Karunaratna and I published in our 2006 JIBS article. The revised scales are available from
The updates are as follows:
The most critical change is that I have updated the scales to include scores for 1995, 2005 and 2015.
Second, I have expanded the set to cover 150 countries , and mildly revised the selection of countries to more accurately reflect the major economies. However, with the latest iteration, I have structured it so that additional countries
can be added. Thus, if you desperately need coverage of an additional country, please contact me directly.
Third, I have finally given in to requests to create a formative factor that represents the combination of all five of my dimensions. I have used the Mahalanobis Distance approach as recommended by Berry, Guillen & Zhou (JIBS, 2010).
Professor in Business Strategy
Centre for the Practice of International Business
Melbourne Business School
The University of Melbourne
200 Leicester Street, Carlton, Victoria, 3053, AUSTRALIA
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