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*Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development*


*Special Issue *

*Call for Papers*
 Pursuit of International Entrepreneurial Opportunities: Behaviors in
International Opportunity Exploration and Exploitation Activities of Firms

Guest Edited by

*Dr. Anisur R. Faroque*

Lecturer of International Business

School of Business and Management

Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology



Email: [log in to unmask]

*Prof. Dr. Olli Kuivalainen*

Professor of International Business

School of Business and Management

Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology



Email: [log in to unmask]

 *Dr. Sussie Morrish*

Associate Professor of Marketing

Department of Management, Marketing, and Entrepreneurship

UC Business School

University of Canterbury


*New Zealand*

Email: [log in to unmask]

 During the last three decades, research investigating how entrepreneurs
recognize opportunities has advanced rapidly and become a central topic in
the entrepreneurship literature (George et al. 2016). Over recent decades,
International Entrepreneurship (IE) field has also shifted its focus from
the categorization of international new ventures and their early
internationalization process to international entrepreneurial behaviors
(Mainela et al., 2014) including opportunity recognition across borders
(Oviatt and McDougall, 2005). Eventually, entrepreneurial behaviors related to
international opportunity recognition process have evolved as critical in
IE (Mainela et al., 2014) and the concept of opportunity has emerged as a
core construct in the IE research (Etemad, 2015; Jones et al. 2011).
Despite the growing interest in this area of research and notable
theoretical and methodological contributions, IE scholars have claimed that
studies around the conceptualization of opportunities and empirical
investigation around opportunity-related behaviors  have yet to conclude
(Davidsson, 2015). However, the meanings and roles of opportunity-related
behaviors remain underdeveloped in IE research (Reuber et al., 2017).

Reuber et. al. (2017) proposed a framework conceiving market as an
ecosystem in which a set of market actors (individual, organizational, and
institutional) interact to enable or stifle the pursuit of new IE
opportunities. In this ecosystem, opportunities are assessed by an
individual-level cognitive activity, constructed by a firm-level innovative
activity and shaped by an institutional-level structuring activity.
However, research involving multi-level analysis and the interactions
thereon is scarce in IE. Terjesen et al. (2016) emphasized the need for
antecedent research at individual, firm, and environmental/institutional
levels that can contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial
activity, e.g., what antecedents influence opportunity-related behaviors or
activities, and what outcomes are the result of those activities. Instead
of very simplistic models, new research involving the empirical examination
of more complex research models that examine the role of antecedents and
influencing factors in the opportunity recognition process/activity along
with appropriate meditation and moderation effects are required.

Like entrepreneurship research, IE also lacks studies involving performance
implications of opportunity-related behavior. In entrepreneurship context,
exploitation is described as performance outcome (Shane and Venkataraman,
2000). While exploitation could be an outcome of opportunity recognition,
different perspectives are essential to define opportunity recognition and
exploitation as well as their corresponding outcomes. For example,
opportunity recognition and exploitation could be defined from the
perspective of exploration-exploitation dichotomy (Faroque, 2014; Vasilchenko
and Morrish, 2011), following March’s (1991) categorization.

Two broad types of different activities related to firms’ attention and
resource allocation—exploration and exploitation—was originally proposed by
March (1991). IE is about both opportunity recognition and exploitation in
international markets (Oviatt and McDougall, 2005 <#_ENREF_384>) and firms
face the dual challenge of exploiting old opportunities and exploring new
ones (March, 1991 <#_ENREF_337>). This complex but undeniable challenge
requires the ability to manage polarities within the organization and
across the organization-environment interface (Johnson, 1992). While March
(1991) initially considered these two capabilities fundamentally
incompatible, subsequent studies often categorize exploitation and
exploration as orthogonal variables that can be simultaneously achieved
(Auh & Menguc, 2005; Katila & Ahuja, 2002). The organizational
ambidexterity concept has thus become a new paradigm in strategic
management and organizational science (Kauppila, 2010). However, the
exploration, exploitation, and ambidexterity perspectives in IE are
relatively new given researchers’ traditional focus on exploitation
activities (Hsu, Lien, & Chen, 2013), with a few exceptions (e.g., Faroque
et al., forthcoming; Lin and Si, 2019). Research in IE can investigate and
integrate with existing research involving exploration, exploitation and
ambidexterity perspective (e.g. network exploration/exploitation,
product/market exploration/exploitation, etc.).

Exploration and exploitation are the two essential building blocks of
dynamic capabilities (Zhan and Chen, 2013) and recent research has
conceptualized opportunity exploration and exploitation as dynamic
capabilities (Faroque, 2014, 2015). Vahlne and Johanson (2013, p. 13)
<#_ENREF_511> have recently defined international opportunity recognition
as a dynamic capability “to identify opportunities and to mobilize relevant
resources both within the own firm and within other firms involved in the
opportunity.” Additional research is needed on the global stage in this
area of inquiry.

*Subject Coverage:*

This special issue aims to include (but should not be limited to), the
following topics:

   - How do social, cultural and institutional (e.g. government and
   political) factors contribute to or constrain international opportunity
   recognition and exploitation?

   - The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and international
   opportunity recognition/exploitation.

   - What are the differential roles of cognitive, human and social capital
   in international opportunity recognition/exploitation? What is the complex

   - The role of strong versus weak network ties in international
   opportunity recognition/exploitation

   - Individuals’ decision-making styles, logics and international
   opportunity recognition/exploitation.

   - The moderators and mediators of the relationships (between antecedents
   and international opportunity recognition, and between international
   opportunity recognition and performance outcomes).

   - The financial and non-financial outcomes of international opportunity

   - The role of trust, commitment and other relational conditions of
   network in identifying and exploiting international opportunities.

   - The distinction between exploration and exploitation of international
   entrepreneurship opportunities and the differential antecedents and

   - Network ambidexterity and opportunity related ambidexterity (the
   relationship between network exploration/exploitation and opportunity

   - The trade-off between international opportunity exploration and
   exploitation activities/capabilities.

   - The barriers of international opportunity exploration and exploitation
   and their remedial measures and finally

   - Re-conceptualization of international opportunity
   (recognition/exploration/exploitation) and the measurement of the

*Notes for Prospective Authors:*

Submitted papers should not have been previously published nor be currently
under consideration for publication elsewhere.

All papers are refereed through an anonymous  peer review process. A guide
for authors, sample copies and other relevant information for submitting
papers is available on the *Author Guidelines*
<> page of the journal.

*Important Dates:*

   - Deadline for manuscript submission: *December 31, 2021.*

·         All queries about the special issue should be sent to lead Guest
Editor (*Dr. Anisur R. Faroque*)


Auh, Seigyoung, & Menguc, Bulent. (2005), “Balancing Exploration and
Exploitation: The Moderating Role of Competitive Intensity”, *Journal of
Business Research*, Vol. 58 (12), pp. 1652-1661.

Davidsson, Per. (2015), “Entrepreneurial opportunities and the
entrepreneurship nexus: A re-conceptualization”, *Journal of Business
Venturing*, 30 (5), pp. 674-695.

Etemad, Hamid. (2015), “The promise of a potential theoretical framework in
international entrepreneurship: an entrepreneurial orientation-performance
relation in internationalized context”, *Journal of International
Entrepreneurship*, 13 (2), pp. 89-95.

Faroque, Anisur R. (2014), “Network exploration and exploitation in
international entrepreneurship: an

opportunity-based view”, *Doctoral Dissertation*, University of Canterbury,
Christchurch, New Zealand.

Faroque, Anisur R. (2015), “Strategic orientations and international
opportunity recognition and development in emerging country born globals:
The moderating role of environmental dynamism”, *International Journal of
Entrepreneurship and Small Business*, 24 (2), pp. 163-186.

Faroque, Anisur R., Morrish, Sussie C., Kuivalainen, Olli, Sundqvist, Sanna
& Torkkeli, Lasse. (2020), “Microfoundations of network exploration and
exploitation capabilities in international opportunity recognition”,
Business Review*,

DOI: *

George, Narine M., Parida, Vinit, Lahti, Tom, & Wincent, Joakim. (2016), “A
systematic literature review of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition:
insights on influencing factors”, *International Entrepreneurship and
Management Journal*, 12 (2), pp. 309-350.

Johnson, Barry. (1992), “Polarity Management: Identifying and Managing
Unsolvable Problems”, Human Resource Development Press, Amherst, MA.

Jones, Marian V., Coviello, Nicole, & Tang, Yee Kwan. (2011), “International
entrepreneurship research (1989–2009): a domain ontology and thematic
analysis”, *Journal of Business Venturing*, 26 (6), 632-659.

Katila, Riitta, & Ahuja, Gautam. (2002), “Something old, something new: A
longitudinal study of search behavior and new product introduction”, *Academy
of Management Journal*, 45 (6), pp. 1183-1194.

Kauppila, Olli-Pekka. (2010), “Creating ambidexterity by integrating and
balancing structurally separate interorganizational partnerships”, *Strategic
Organization*, 8 (4), pp. 283-312.

Lin, Song, & Si, Steven. (2019), “The influence of exploration and
exploitation on born globals’ speed of internationalization”, *Management
Decision*. 57 (1), 193-210.

Mainela, Tuija, Puhakka, Vesa, & Servais, Per. (2014), “The concept of
international opportunity in international entrepreneurship: a review and a
research agenda”, *International Journal of Management Reviews*, 16 (1),
pp. 105-129.

March, James G. (1991), “Exploration and exploitation in organizational
learning”, *Organization Science*, 2 (1), pp. 71-87.

Oviatt, Benjamin M., & McDougall, Patricia P. (2005), “Defining
international entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of
internationalization”, *Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice*, 29 (5), pp.

Reuber, A Rebecca, Dimitratos, Pavlos, & Kuivalainen, Olli. (2017), “Beyond
categorization: New directions for theory development about entrepreneurial
internationalization”, *Journal of International Business Studies*, 48, pp.

Shane, Scott, & Venkataraman, Sankaran. (2000), “The promise of
entrepreneurship as a field of research”, *Academy of Management Review*,
25(1), 217-226.

Terjesen, Siri, Hessels, Jolanda, & Li, Dan. (2016), Comparative
international entrepreneurship: A review and research agenda”, *Journal of
Management*, 42 (1), pp. 299-344.

Vahlne, Jan-Erik, & Johanson, Jan. (2013), “The Uppsala model on evolution
of the multinational business enterprise–from internalization to
coordination of networks”, *International Marketing Review**, *30 (3), pp.

Vasilchenko, Elena, & Morrish, Sussie. (2011), “The role of entrepreneurial
networks in the exploration and exploitation of internationalization
opportunities by information and communication technology firms”, *Journal
of International Marketing*, 19 (4), pp. 88-105.

Zhan, Wu, & Chen, Roger R. (2013), “Dynamic capability and IJV performance:
The effect of exploitation and exploration capabilities”, *Asia Pacific
Journal of Management*, 30 (2), pp. 601-632.

*--- The End ---*


*Prof. Dr. Zafar U. Ahmed*

*BBA (New York), MBA (Texas), Ph.D., (Utah), D. Litt., (India),*

*Professor of Marketing and International Business*

*Founder, President and CEO:  *

*Academy for Global Business Advancement (

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*Journal for International Business & Entrepreneurship Development *


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