New and Novel Business Paradigms in and From China and India (Chindia)
Special issue call for papers from European Business Review
Guest Editors:

Justin Paul (Full Professor, University of Puerto Rico USA & Distinguished
Scholar- Indian Institute of Management) Email: [log in to unmask] ,
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) <[log in to unmask]>

Ambika Zutshi, (Deakin University, Australia. Email:
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) <[log in to unmask]>

Jane Menzies (Senior Lecturer, Deakin University, Australia, Email:
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Helen Cai (Middlesex University London, United Kingdom, Email: [log in to unmask]
) <[log in to unmask]>
Deadline: 25th September, 2019

All papers should be submitted via the ScholarOne webpage:
Papers should conform to the author guidelines
Rationale / Highlights

- China and India are two old cultures of the world

- China and India are the two most populous emerging markets

- China and India boast numerous innovative firms and business savvy

- Chinese and Indian firms are actively internationalizing into other

- Western multinationals constantly get inspirations through working with
China and India
Context and Call

Globalization has steered a transition toward a worldwide economy
(Teagarden & Scotter, 2013). Globalization has led to a fast growth in the
activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and they have responded
proactively to globalization by modifying their strategies in developing
countries (Narula & Dunning, 2010). In other words, Globalization means
integrating the economy and industries with the rest of the world, which
involves the removal of restrictions on imports and foreign investment
(Paul, 2015). Firms established in developed economies need to explore new
emerging markets to expand their operations, to maintain global

Whenever a company ventures abroad, decisions must be made regarding how
its business activities in a foreign market should be conducted (Welch,
Benito and Peterson, 2007). As part of growth strategy, many firms go
global and orient themselves more internationally (Paul & Gupta, 2014). In
order to create competitiveness, the evolutionary path of firms from
emerging markets could be different from that of firms from developed
countries (Kotabe & Kothari, 2016). We need new models and theories to
avoid replicated research based on the same model or theory (Terjessen,
Hessels &Lee, 2013: Paul, Parthasarathy & Gupta, 2017). Similarly, the area
of international management is very much in need of new theories and models
(Keupp and Gassman, 2009; Paul & Shrivastava, 2016). For example,
Springboard perspective (Luo & Tung, 2007; 2018) has received wide
acceptance as a theoretical lens in research these days.

The competitiveness of firms from emerging countries has become an
important issue in the academic as well as industry circle, with the
globalization gathering momentum. China has been one of the most favorite
markets for Western firms for the last decade (Ghauri & Fang, 2001). China
and India (CHINDIA) have emerged as the fastest growing economies in the
world (Paul & Mas, 2016). According to The Economist, ‘Business in China
and India is transforming: Its multinationals will change the way we all
live’.1 There is indeed a significant increase in the global impact of
those Asian firms: The last twenty years or so have seen an unprecedented
expansion of international trade, with the emergence of stronger economies
with large populations, such as China and India (Witcher & Chau, 2012).

Considering these developments, the Wall Street Journal has published Asia
200, an annual ranking of Asia's leading companies, as determined by
executives and professionals throughout Asia. Their increasing prominence
and the growing interest of media and researchers to understand different
dimensions of management of firms from China and India, requires a special
issue, on the same topic, in this Asian century. In this special issue, we
would propose to discuss how Chinese and Indian contexts help us exploring
existing theories and their boundaries and create new, indigenous
theory/models. We will examine the factors determining the global economic
footprint of firms from China and India and the strategies to create
sustainable competitive advantage. We intend to encourage scholars to
submit papers focusing on either Chinese or Indian business,
internationalization as well as comparative studies.

Asia has a great potential as it consists of a total population of about 4
billion people, equally to 60% of the world’s population. To challenge
foreign rivals, more Asian firms are engaging in internationalization of
their operations (Osawa, 2003; Chang, 2007). For instance, OFDI from China
has increased substantially in the recent years (Kolstad & Wiig, 2012). The
Special Issue will take stock of what is known about business environment,
structure and strategies of firms to succeed in China and India as well and
discuss their implications. We aim not only to increase the understanding
of those issues, but also to identify the characteristics of firms as well
as industries and how it compares with the internationalization of firms
from other regions by encouraging the researchers to develop new frameworks
and models (such as CELM Framework by Gao, 2003) with research agenda.

Emerging-market firms have played a major role, in the recent decades. The
array of such firms going abroad has broadened in the last decade (Aulakh,
Kotabe & Teegen, 2000; Kotabe, Jiang & Murray, 2011; Kotabe & Kothari,
2016). In this context, the competitiveness of firms becomes an important
issue in the academic field as well as in the industry circle. For example,
as late-comers to the global-market scene, Chinese or Indian firms need to
overcome several obstacles to their growth and internationalization such as
liability of foreignness, scarce firm resources, often unfavorable business
conditions at home and negative country-of-origin associations by the
customers in developed markets. Therefore, studies exploring new models or
theories or focusing on theoretical extension based on recently developed
and emerging theories in the context of emerging market firms would be
welcomed, following the calls from prior researchers (Rugman and Oh 2012;
Paul & Benito, 2018) called for new thinking to formulate business strategy
to supplement the conventional focus of the country.

It’s important to understand political, cultural, legal, economic and
geographic factors affecting businesses in those countries. Redding and
Witt (2006) described the state-owned enterprise system in China as a
particular business system and view it as a tray of loose sand. Redding and
Witt (2007) explored the choices and chances of Chinese capitalism
exploring the role and the future of capitalism. On the other hand, Fang
(2012) developed a Yin Yang perspective to understand Chinese culture. Paul
(2015) analyzed the impact of World Trade Organization (WTO) in China and
India, comparing exports, imports and FDI in those countries and found that
China’s achieved success even before joining the WTO and the country is
beyond WTO.

With this background, this special issue promises to integrate different
aspects that might have influenced the growth strategies, and management of
firms from China and India. This is a call for papers examining what is new
in Chinese and Indian business.
We encourage researchers to address one or more of these research questions
through novel approaches and analyses:

1.What is new about our understanding of business in China and India? In
other words, what do we now view distinctly differently than in the past
(e.g., new ways of analyzing, interpreting, and new theories)?

2.What is new about the international business of Chinese and India firms?
How have businesses adapted to trends such as globalization, a shrinking
domestic workforce, and digitalization?

3.What are the new drivers of success for small, medium and large
enterprises in and from China and India in international business?

4.What are the old and new micro and macro factors from the home country
that influence the success or failure of multinational enterprises from
China and India? What are the similarities and difference of their business

5.What institutional constraints and liability of foreignness do for firms
from countries such as China and India in their efforts to create global
economic footprint?

6. Are the process, path, pace and pattern of firms from China and India
different? What are the strategies required for firms from developing
countries to create sustainable competitive advantage in the long run?

7. Do national culture and corporate (organizational) culture influence the
success or failure of of firms from those markets?

8. What are the old and new foreign market entry and establishment modes of
Chinese and Indian firms? How is home country context linked to entry mode

9. Do cultural, administrative, geographic and economic distances matter as
far as MNEs from China and India are concerned? Do the internationalization
strategies of Chinese firms differ from Indian firms?

10. What differences impact the competitiveness of firms from developed
countries while doing business in China or India? Which differences result
in firm behavior that impacts the host countries in significant and novel

11. How are the factors influencing the competitiveness of firms?
Innovation, technology, strategy? What are their antecedents, and

12. What are the new and novel paradigms in different areas such as Global
outsourcing of services to India, outsourcing/licensing/joint ventures in
the manufacturing sector in China?

14. Are there novel /unique models that will help firms and researchers to
succeed in those fastest growing markets? If not, how do you fill the gaps
by developing innovative framework/model?

15.What are the cultural roots of creativity and innovation in China and
India? Similarities and differences?

16- How to understand Chinese and Indian firms’ approaches to innovation in
international business?

17- What can we learn from China and India in terms of innovation and

The scope of this Special Issue is immense as there are thousands of
researchers worldwide actively engaged in research dealing with
international business practices, processes and strategies in China and
India. The SI would cover several topics, with the focus on (but not
limited to)

* The factors which influence the success or failure of firms in and from
China and India.

* Similarities and difference of their business models in this competitive

* Exports, Imports and Regional trade agreements in the context of CHINA
and INDIA.

* Chinese and Indian Industries in the WTO era.

* Institutional constraints and liability of foreignness of firms from as
China and India.

* Appropriate strategies required for firms from China and India to create
sustainable competitive advantage.

* Role of national culture and corporate (organizational) culture.

* FDI in China and India.

* Foreign market entry and establishment modes of firms from China and

* Negotiation Process/Style for foreign firms to succeed in China and India.

* Process of building Networks- guanxi- in those countries.

* Public versus Private sector in China and India.

* Intellectual Property Rights and Implications in China and India
References Cited

Aulakh, P. S., Kotabe, M and Teegen H (2000), Export Strategies and
Performance of Firms from Emerging Economies: Evidence from Latin America,
Academy of Management Journal, 43 (3), 2000, 342-361.

Chang, J. (2007). International expansion path, speed, product
diversification and performance among emerging-market MNEs: evidence from
Asia-Pacific multinational companies. Asian Business & Management, 6(4),

Fang, T. (2012). Yin Yang: A new perspective on culture. Management and
organization Review, 8(1), 25-50.

Gao, M. H. (2013). Culture determines business models: Analyzing home
depot's failure case in China for international retailers from a
communication perspective. Thunderbird International Business Review,
55(2), 173-191.

Ghauri, P., & Fang, T. (2001). Negotiating with the Chinese: A
socio-cultural analysis. Journal of World Business, 36(3), 303-325.

Keupp, M. M., & Gassmann, O. (2009). The past and the future of
international entrepreneurship: a review and suggestions for developing the
field. Journal of Management. 35(3): 600-633.

Kolstad, I. & Wiig, A. (2012). What determines Chinese Outward FDI? Journal
of World Business. 47(1), 26-34.

Kotabe, M, Crystal X. Jiang, and Murray, J.Y. (2011). Managerial Ties,
Knowledge Acquisition, Realized Absorptive Capacity and New Product
Development Performance of Emerging Multinational Companies: A Case of
China, Journal of World Business, 46 (April), 166-176.

Kotabe, M. and Kothari, T. (2016). Emerging market multinational companies’
evolutionary paths to building a competitive advantage from emerging
markets to developed countries. Journal of World Business, 51(5), 729-743.

Luo, Y., & Tung, R. L. (2018). A general theory of springboard MNEs.
Journal of International Business Studies, 49(2), 129-152.

Luo, Y., & Tung, R. L. (2007). International expansion of emerging market
enterprises: A springboard perspective. Journal of International Business

Narula, R. & Dunning, J.H. (2009). Multinational enterprises, Development
and Globalization- Some clarifications and a research agenda, Oxford
Development Studies, 38 (3), 263-287.

Osawa, T. (2003). Japan in an institutional quagmire. International
business to the Resque? Journal of International Management. 9 (3). 219-235.

Paul, J., & Gupta, P. (2014). Process and intensity of internationalization
of IT firms–Evidence from India. International Business Review. 23(3),

Paul, J. (2015). Does WTO increase Trade and causes convergence? The
International Trade Journal, 29 (4), 291-308.

Paul, J., & Shrivastava.A (2016). Do young managers in a developing country
have stronger entrepreneurial intentions? International Business Review, 25
(6), 1197-1210.

Paul, J., Parthasarathy, S, & Gupta, P. (2017). Exporting Challenges of
SMEs: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of World Business. 52(3),

Paul, J., & Mas, E. (2016). The Emergence of China and India in the Global
market. Journal of East-West Business, 22(1), 28-50.

Paul, J., & Benito, G. R. (2018). A review of research on outward foreign
direct investment from emerging countries, including China: what do we
know, how do we know and where should we be heading? Asia Pacific Business
Review, 24(1), 90-115.

Redding, G., & Witt, M. A. (2006). The ‘tray of loose sand’: A thick
description of the state-owned enterprise sector of China seen as a
business system. Asian Business & Management, 5(1), 87-112.

Redding, S. G., & Witt, M. A. (2007). The future of Chinese capitalism:
Choices and chances. Oxford University Press.

Rugman, A. M., & Oh, C. H. (2013). Why the home region matters: location
and regional multinationals. British Journal of Management, 24(4), 463-479.

Taras, V., Rowney, J., & Steel, P. (2009). Half a century of measuring
culture: Review of approaches, challenges, and limitations based on the
analysis of 121 instruments for quantifying culture. Journal of
International Management, 15(4), 357-373.

Welch, L. S., Benito, G. R., & Petersen, B. (2008). Foreign operation
methods: Theory, analysis, strategy. Edward Elgar Publishing.

*(Distinguished Professor)*
*University of PR, USA & **IIM*
*+1 407 961 0811 (Cell)*
Associate/Guest Editor-International Bus Review

Journal of Busi Research
:Int J of Em Markets
, Journal of Strategic Marketing
Bus Ethics: Euro Review, J of Promo Mgmt
Former Faculty- Uni of Washington & IIM
Author: Export-Import Management Oxford University Press
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