*Special Issue of the Journal of International Business Studies*


*Special Issue Editors:*

   - Victor Cui (University of Manitoba, Canada, [log in to unmask])
   - Dana Minbaeva, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, [log in to unmask])
   - Rajneesh Narula, University of Reading, UK, [log in to unmask])
   - Ilan Vertinsky (University of British Columbia, Canada,
   [log in to unmask])

*Deadline for submission: *December 23, 2019

*Research Background*

The objective of this special issue is to broaden and deepen our
understanding of how the acquisition and protection of Intellectual
Property Rights (IPRs) affects international business, using multiple
levels of analysis. Intellectual property is a key aspect of firm-specific
advantages (FSAs), and the exploitation and augmentation of such FSAs is
often crucial to a firm’s competitiveness (Narula, 2014; Verbeke, 2013). At
the same time, the attractiveness of countries (or regions and cities
within countries) as destinations for MNEs is shaped by their capacity to
provide access to relevant location-specific advantages associated with
intellectual property (Belderbos, Leten, & Suzuki, 2013; Cantwell, Dunning,
& Lundan, 2010). Firms seek to locate their competence-creating activities
in close proximity to knowledge infrastructure (Castellani, Jimenez, &
Zanfei, 2013). A related key location advantage is country-level
institutions associated with adequate IPR protection (Nandkumar & Srikanth,
2016). Equally important are micro-level factors such as access to and
retention of human capital, which are key to firm’s knowledge-intensive
capabilities (Cascio & Boudreau, 2016; Tung, 2016). IPRs matter therefore
both for firm strategy and evolution, as well as for policy makers, who are
concerned about the optimal level of IPR protection. Insufficient or poorly
enforced IPR protection can affect locational attractiveness. Excessive IPR
protection can have the same effect, when used as a strategy tool by
shelter-seeking firms to raise artificial entry barriers against rivals and
potential entrants.

Prior studies have explored international IPR violation and protection at
both macro (e.g., national) and micro (e.g., firm or unit) levels of
analysis. Macro-level research has paid attention to the drivers of
IPR violations and the mechanisms of circumventing IPR protection (e.g.,
Ginarte & Park, 1997, Maskus, 2014; Mertha, 2007; Saggi, 2002). A recent
debate published in JIBS exemplifies this line of research, focusing on
institutional factors that facilitate or hinder IPR protection at the
international level (Brander, Cui, & Vertinsky, 2017; Peng, Ahlstrom,
Carraher, & Shi, 2017).

At the micro-level, researchers have maintained that knowledge spillovers
and misappropriation are prevalent because of inter-firm competition,
colocation, alliances, as well as employee mobility (Berry, 2014; Hamel,
Doz, & Prahalad, 1989; Inkpen, Minbaeva & Tsang, 2018; Narula & Santangelo,
2009; Shaver & Flyer, 2000). Researchers have studied various mechanisms,
such as governance modes (Freitas, Geuna, & Rossi, 2013), strategic
location (Zhao, 2006), strategic patenting (Hall & Ziedonis, 2001), and
litigation (Lerner, 1995) to protect MNEs’ IPRs. Some researchers have also
argued that knowledge leakage may even be beneficial for MNEs by developing
a reputation for cooperation, which may generate reciprocity (Inkpen,
Minbaeva & Tsang, 2018; Sofka, Preto & de Faria, 2014). The structure and
organization of MNE networks also matter in shaping their intellectual
property-based FSAs, as well as the efficacy of individual R&D units. This
includes managing interactions with external partners as well as intra-MNE
knowledge flows (Salter et al 2015, Bogers et al 2018).

A number of studies have considered the extent to which direct
IPR protection mechanisms and associated institutions shape the propensity
of MNE subsidiaries to effectively engage in innovation (Santangelo, Meyer,
& Jindra, 2016), both internally and with external partners (Athreye,
Batsaki, & Singh, 2016, Martínez-Noya & García-Canal, 2018). Policy issues
include determining the optimal level of IPR protection to attract and
embed inward FDI (Wu, Ma, & Zhuo, 2017), although it is still a matter of
debate whether there is a compatibility between the optimal level of IPR
protection needed for development more generally (Fagerberg, Srholec, &
Verspagen, 2010; Kim, Lee, Park, & Choo, 2012; Sweet & Maggio, 2015) and
promoting MNE activity (Criscuolo & Narula, 2008; Narula, 2003).

While prior studies indicate that IPR protection involves factors at both
macro- and micro-levels, most have investigated the phenomenon at a single
level. The complexity of interactions across levels calls for more
comprehensive frameworks that allow the development of theoretical
arguments specifying the underlying mechanisms that act at and connect
multiple levels. For example, knowledge protection and acquisition
strategies of MNEs may adapt in different ways to differences and changes
in IPR policies in various host countries. Similarly, the increased active
involvement of some governments, not just as protectors of IPRs of
companies and individuals, but as strategic participants in the “knowledge
protection and acquisition game” may also affect the IPR strategies of
MNEs, as well as undermine international IPR protection institutions.
Moreover, MNEs can influence the “knowledge game” through the employment of
various “non-market strategies” targeted at different host-country
governments and reshape the dynamics of the system. To understand such
complex relationships, research is needed to unpack the interactions of
factors across levels. Making balanced policy proposals for countries in an
era of complex knowledge sharing strategies among networks of different
actors also requires a more holistic approach. Multi-level research logic
also permits more nuanced refinements to international business theory
(Narula & Verbeke, 2015). This special issue aims to encourage a more
holistic view. Micro-level studies on IPR explicitly need to take on board
the macro-level, beyond cursory observations in the discussion and
conclusion section, and vice versa for the more meso- and macro-oriented
studies. The objective is to greatly improve precision in the analysis of
dynamic contexts in which IPR protection matters and is beneficial for the
actors (country, industry, firm, etc.).

This special issue is open to IPR-related IB papers conducted at any level,
but where explicit linkages are developed and explored to other levels. We
are interested in papers that conceptually develop multi-level explanations
and intentionally avoid the use of explanatory shorthand by correlating
mono-level variables. We encourage submissions that theoretically
accommodate a nested, complex and adaptive system view on MNEs. We welcome
empirical papers across a variety of methodologies, including process
research, qualitative studies, etc. We welcome papers utilizing formal
multi-level modeling which are appropriate to analyze the impact of
high-level variables (e.g., various national IPR protection regimes) on
low-level variables (e.g., knowledge acquisition and protection strategies
of MNEs in these policy environments) (Peterson, Arregle, & Martin, 2012).

*Aims and Scope*

We are interested in research that examines the joint impact of macro IPR
protection regimes and MNEs’ knowledge acquisition and protection
approaches on key international business decisions and outcomes of MNEs. We
particularly welcome multidisciplinary research that expands current themes
by incorporating insights from a broader range of disciplines, e.g.,
political science, sociology, economics, innovation, HRM, and business
strategy. Below we offer eight possible themes as examples of the types of
topics we would like to include in this special issue. They are by no means

*1)*      *Location choices in international expansion for knowledge
exploiting and knowledge augmenting FDI.*

Topics may include choices of locations among nations, clusters of nations,
or within-nation regions (Zhao, 2006), for FDIs made by emerging market
multinationals (EMNEs) or developed country multinationals (DMNEs).

*2)*      *Entry mode choices of large MNEs and international new ventures

Example topics may include choices of entry modes, and comparison of entry
modes between EMNEs and DMNEs, between different types of INVs, or between
established and new firms (Oxley, 1999; Phene & Tallman, 2012).

3)      *Non-market strategies in home and host environments.*

Topics may include different forms of non-market strategies, e.g., CSR,
political activities (Liu, Luo, & Cui, 2018; Mellahi, Frynas, Sun, &
Siegel, 2016) that MNEs undertake, both in home and host countries.

*4)*      *Strategy adaptation to low IPR protection environments.*

Topics may include, for example, alternative strategies to protect and
acquire IPRs, and to obtain data, by EMNEs and DMNEs, as they enter low IPR
regimes (Baldwin & Henkel, 2015).

*5)*      *Autonomy, roles and corporate governance of MNE subunits.*

Topics could include the intentional and unintentional knowledge leakage
from knowledge transfer between MNE units, teams, and individuals (Inkpen,
Minbaeva & Tsang, 2018; Minbaeva, Pedersen, Bjorkman, & Fey, 2014), as well
as governance mechanisms relevant for IPR-related processes such as
subunits’ structure and design, composition of board of directors, top
management team, executive compensation, etc.

*6)*      *Alliances, M&A and external network management.*

Possible topics could include MNEs’ and subsidiaries’ alliance formation
and portfolio management, coopetition (Cui, Yang, & Vertinsky, 2018, Wang,
Wang, Yang, Jiang, & Cui, 2016), M&A strategies, as well as subunits’ and
individuals’ embeddedness (Meyer, Mudambi, & Narula, 2011) in the alliance
and competition networks in host-countries.

*7)*      *Participation in clusters.*

Example topics could include the strategies of international agglomeration
(Martin, Salomon, & Wu, 2010), inter-firm interactions in clusters in host
countries, and their effects on firm IPR acquisition and protection.

*8)*      *Organization of the R&D function.*

Topics include R&D team composition, compensation (Yanadori & Cui, 2013),
talent acquisition, development, and retention (Kehoe & Tzabbar, 2015), as
well as global and semi-global R&D configurations (Criscuolo & Narula,

*Workshop and Symposium*

To help authors develop their papers, we will organize a paper development
workshop in the summer of 2020. Furthermore, we plan to have a symposium at
a major academic conference in 2021 for the final selected papers for
publication, aiming to increase their visibility and impact.

*Submission Process and Deadlines*

All manuscripts will be reviewed as a cohort for this Special
Issue. Manuscripts must be submitted between November 15 and December 23,
2019, at All submissions will go
through the JIBS regular double-blind review process and follow the
standard norms and processes. For more information about this Call for
Papers, please contact the Special Issue Editors or the JIBS Managing
Editor ([log in to unmask]).


Athreye, S., Batsakis, G., & Singh, S. 2016. Local, global, and internal
knowledge sourcing: The trilemma of foreign-based R&D subsidiaries. *Journal
of Business Research*, 69: 5694-5702.

Baldwin, C. Y., & Henkel, J. 2015. Modularity and intellectual property
protection. *Strategic Management Journal*, *36*: 1637-1655.

Belderbos, R., Leten, B., & Suzuki, S. 2013. How global is R&D? Firm-level
determinants of home-country bias in R&D. *Journal of International
Business Studies*, 44: 765-786.

Berry, H. 2014. Global integration and innovation: Multicountry knowledge
generation within MNCs. *Strategic Management Journal*, 35: 869–890.

Bogers, M., Foss, N. J., & Lyngsie, J. (2018). The “human side” of open
innovation: The role of employee diversity in firm-level openness. *Research
Policy*, 47(1), 218-231.

Brander, J. A., Cui, V., & Vertinsky, I. 2017. China and intellectual
property rights: A challenge to the rule of law. *Journal of International
Business Studies*, 44: 765-786

Cantwell, J., Dunning, J. H., & Lundan, S. M. 2010. An evolutionary
approach to understanding international business activity: The co-evolution
of MNEs and the institutional environment. *Journal of International
Business Studies*, 41: 567-586.

Cascio, W., & Boudreau, J. 2016. The search for global competence: From
international HR to talent management. *Journal of World Business, *51(1):

Castellani, D., Jimenez, A., & Zanfei, A. 2013. How remote are R&D labs?
Distance factors and international innovative activities. *Journal of
International Business Studies*, 44: 649-675.

Criscuolo, P., & Narula, R. 2007. Using multi-hub structures for
international R&D: Organisational inertia and the challenges of
implementation. *Management International Review*, 47: 639-660.

Criscuolo, P., & Narula, R. 2008. A novel approach to national
technological accumulation and absorptive capacity: aggregating Cohen and
Levinthal. *The European Journal of Development Research*, 20: 56-73.

Cui, V., Yang, H., & Vertinsky, I. 2018. Attacking your partners: Strategic
alliances and competition between partners in product markets. *Strategic
Management Journal*. Forthcoming.

Fagerberg, J., Srholec, M., & Verspagen, B. 2010. Innovation and economic
development. In *Handbook of the Economics of Innovation* (Vol. 2,
833-872). North-Holland.

Freitas, I. M. B., Geuna, A., & Rossi, F. 2013. Finding the right partners:
Institutional and personal modes of governance of university–industry
interactions. *Research Policy*, 42: 50-62.

Ginarte, J. C., & Park, W. G. 1997. Determinants of patent rights: A
cross-national study. *Research Policy*, 26: 283–301.

Hall, B. H., & Ziedonis, R. H. 2001. The patent paradox revisited: An
empirical study of patenting in the US semiconductor industry, 1979-1995. *RAND
Journal of Economics*, 32: 101-128.

Hamel, G., Doz, Y. L., & Prahalad, C. K. 1989. Collaborate with your
competitors and win. *Harvard* *Business Review*, 67: 133–139.

Inkpen, A., Minbaeva, D. & Tsang, E. 2018 Point-Counterpoint on Knowledge
Leakage. Forthcoming in *Journal of International Business Studies*

Kehoe, R. R., & Tzabbar, D. 2015. Lighting the way or stealing the shine?
An examination of the duality in star scientists’ effects on firm
innovative performance. *Strategic Management Journal*, 36, 709–727.

Kim, Y. K., Lee, K., Park, W. G., & Choo, K. 2012. Appropriate
intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at
different levels of development. *Research policy*, 41: 358-375.

Lerner, J. 1995. Patenting in the shadow of competitors. *Journal of Law
and Economics*, 38: 463-495.

Liu, H., Luo, J., Cui, V. 2018. The impact of internationalization on home
country charitable donation: Evidence from Chinese firms. *Management
International Review, *58*:* 313-335.

Martin, X., Salomon, R. M., & Wu, Z. 2010. The institutional determinants
of agglomeration: A study in the global semiconductor industry. *Industrial
and Corporate Change*, 19: 1769-1800.

Martínez-Noya, A., & García-Canal, E. 2018. Location, shared suppliers and
the innovation performance of R&D outsourcing agreements. *Industry and
Innovation*, 25: 308-332.

Maskus, K. 2014. The new globalization of intellectual property rights:
What’s new this time? *Australian Economic History Review*, 54: 262-284.

Mellahi, K., Frynas, J. G., Sun, P., & Siegel, D. 2016. A review of the
nonmarket strategy literature: Toward a multi-theoretical integration. *Journal
of Management*, 42: 143-173.

Mertha, A. 2007. *The politics of piracy: Intellectual property in
contemporary China*. New York: Cornell University Press.

Meyer, K. E., Mudambi, R., & Narula, R. 2011. Multinational enterprises and
local contexts: The opportunities and challenges of multiple
embeddedness. *Journal
of Management Studies*, 48: 235-252.

Minbaeva, D. B., Pedersen, T., Björkman, I., & Fey, C. F. 2014. A
retrospective on: MNC knowledge transfer, subsidiary absorptive capacity,
and HRM.* Journal of International Business Studies, *45: 52-62.

Nandkumar, A., & Srikanth, K. 2016. Right person in the right place: How
the host country IPR influences the distribution of inventors in offshore
R&D projects of multinational enterprises. *Strategic Management Journal,* 37:

Narula, R. 2003. *Globalization and technology: Interdependence, innovation
systems and industrial policy*. Polity Press, Cambridge.

Narula, R. 2014. Exploring the paradox of competence-creating subsidiaries:
balancing bandwidth and dispersion in MNEs. *Long Range Planning*, 47: 4-15.

Narula, R., & Verbeke, A. 2015. Making internalization theory good for
practice: The essence of Alan Rugman's contributions to international
business. *Journal of World Business*, 50: 612-622.

Oxley, J. E. 1999. Institutional environment and the mechanisms of
governance: the impact of intellectual property protection on the structure
of inter-firm alliances. *Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization*, *38*:

Peng, M. W., Ahlstrom, D., Carraher, S. M, & Shi, W. 2017. An
institution-based view of global IPR history. *Journal of International
Business Studies*, 48: 893-907.

Peterson, M. F., Arregle, J., & Martin, X. 2012. Multilevel models in
international business research. *Journal of International Business Studies*
, 43: 451-457.

Phene, A., & Tallman, S. 2012. Complexity, context and governance in
biotechnology alliances. *Journal of International Business Studies*, *43*:

Saggi, K. 2002. Trade, foreign direct investment, and international
technology transfer: A survey. *The World Bank Research Observer*, 17:

Salter, A., Ter Wal, A. L., Criscuolo, P., & Alexy, O. (2015). Open for
ideation: Individual-level openness and idea generation in R&D. *Journal of
Product Innovation Management*, 32(4), 488-504.

Santangelo, G. D., Meyer, K. E., & Jindra, B. 2016. MNE subsidiaries’
outsourcing and insourcing of R&D: The role of local institutions. *Global
Strategy Journal*, 6: 247-268.

Shaver, J. M., & Flyer, F. 2000. Agglomeration economies, firm
heterogeneity, and foreign direct investment in the United States. *Strategic
Management Journal*, 21: 1175-1193.

Sofka, W., Preto, M., & de Faria, P. 2014. MNC subsidiary closures: What is
the value of employees’ human capital in new jobs? *Journal of
International Business Studies, *45: 723-750.

Sweet, C. M., & Maggio, D. S. E. 2015. Do stronger intellectual property
rights increase innovation? *World Development*, 66: 665-677.

Tung, R. 2016. New perspectives on human resource management in a global
context. *Journal of World Business, *51: 142-152

Verbeke, A. 2013. *International business strategy*. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.

Wang, Y., Wang, N., Yang, Z., Jiang, L., & Cui, V. 2016. Managing
relationships with power advantage buyers: The role of supplier initiated
bonding tactics in long-term buyer-supplier collaborations. *Journal of
Business Research, *69: 5587-5596.

Wu, J., Ma, Z., & Zhuo, S. 2017. Enhancing national innovative capacity:
The impact of high-tech international trade and inward foreign direct
investment. *International Business Review*, 26: 502-514.

Yanadori, Y. & Cui, V. 2013. Creating incentives for innovation? The
relationship between pay dispersion in R&D groups and firm innovation
performance. *Strategic Management Journal, *34: 1502–1511.

Zhao, M. Y. 2006. Conducting R&D in countries with weak intellectual
property rights protection. *Management Science*, 52: 1185-1199.

*About the Guest Editors*

*Victor Cui* is Associate Professor at the Asper School of Business of the
University of Manitoba. His research focuses on knowledge creation,
protection, and acquisition within R&D units, in inter-firm collaboration
and competition, and under various national IPR protection regimes. He has
also studied MNEs’ corporate social responsibilities. His research has been
published in *Strategic Management Journal* and *Journal of International
Business Studies*. He is serving on the editorial board of JIBS.

*Dana Minbaeva *is a Professor of Strategic and Global Human Resource
Management and the Vice-President for International Affairs at Copenhagen
Business School. Her research on strategic international HRM, knowledge
sharing and transfer in multinational corporations has appeared in such top
international journals as *Journal of International Business Studies*, *Journal
of Management Studies, Human Resource Management, *and many others.
Professor Minbaeva published more than 50 articles in international peer
reviewed journals, numerous book chapters and reports.  She received
several national and international awards for research achievements and
knowledge dissemination, including the prestigious JIBS Decade Award 2013.
Dana Minbaeva is the founder of the Human Capital Analytics Group:

*Rajneesh Narula* is the John H. Dunning Chair of International Business
Regulation at the Henley Business School, University of Reading, UK. His
research and consulting have focused on the role of multinational firms in
development, innovation and industrial policy, R&D alliances and
outsourcing. He has published over a 100 articles and chapters in books on
these themes. He is an area Editor of JIBS. He holds honorary appointments
at UNU-MERIT, Norwegian School of Business, Urbino University and Oxford

*Ilan Vertinsky* is Vinod Sood Professor of International Business Studies,
Strategy and Business Economics in the Sauder School of Business at
UBC.  He is also an associate of the Peter Wall Institute of Advanced
Studies and a former Distinguished Scholar in Residence of the Institute.
He has received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. Prior
to his appointment at UBC he served on the Faculty of Northwestern
University. He has published more than 250 refereed journal articles, book
chapters and books in strategy, international business and management,
economics, marketing and operations research. He currently serves as an
area editor of JIBS.

Victor Cui, PhD
Associate Professor
Asper School of Business
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, MB, R3T 5V4
Tel: +1 204 474-8058
Fax: +1 204 474-7545

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