**Apologies for Cross-Postings**

*Call for Papers for Special Issue in Journal of World Business*

*The Internationalization of Social Enterprises*

*Submission deadline: January 31, 2018*

*Submissions open: January 1, 2018.*

*Guest Editors:*

Ilan Alon

Roy Mersland

Trond Randoy

Oded Shenkar

Martina Musteen (Supervising Editor)

Across the globe, social enterprises, sometimes called hybrid
organizations, are receiving increased public and academic attention (Wang
et al, 2015; Battilana and Dorado, 2010). Whether organized as a for-profit
firm or a non-profit organization, a social enterprise operates with two
logics: To be financially self-sufficient, or sustainable, and to achieve a
socially desired outcome (Sharir and Lerner, 2006; Miller et al., 2012).
These can include solutions to homelessness (McKenna, 2013), improved
quality of life and inclusion for the disabled population (Wang et al.,
2015) or better treatment for those suffering from diseases, such as
tuberculosis (Lönnroth et al., 2007). Many different definitions for social
enterprises have been proposed over the years (summarized by Zahra et al.,
2009). We define and differentiate social enterprises on three dimensions:

(1)   Social enterprises pursue a “double” bottom line (economic and social
betterment).  Among the primary goals of a social business is social value
creation, that is, addressing or solving a social problem, sometimes at the
expense of profits.

(2)   Unlike philanthropic organizations depending on donations and
symbolic CSR-related activities depending on discretionary corporate
philanthropy, social enterprises need to be financially sustainable. This
means that these enterprises need to earn their income by providing the
market place with products and services, and do so at a price that recoups
the cost at, or below, the prevailing market price. At a minimum, they need
to survive and, under ideal condition, grow and expand.

(3)   Social enterprises fill institutional voids at the local, national
and global level.  They commonly provide services, or goods, that are
either unavailable or lacking through the public or private sectors.

We see that ontological and epistemological gaps exit in the research on
international social enterprises.  There is no consensus on how the
performance of social enterprises should be studied (Mair and Martí, 2006),
including the trade-offs between social goals and financial goals
(Mersland, et al. 2011; Randøy et al, 2015).  Although Zahra et al. (2008)
highlighted a lack of research on social enterprises, we still observe that
researchers have not yet adequately addressed social enterprise issues with
empirical studies and much of the current research on social enterprises is
in the form of descriptive case studies (e.g., Wang et al. 2015).

Social enterprises often operate across different countries and contexts or
have partners from different institutional settings. The literature on
social enterprises, particularly as an international phenomenon, is
underdeveloped (Sharir and Lerner, 2006) and we see a need to explicitly
examine multinational, cross-border and comparative orientations of these
kinds of enterprises. Social enterprises are prevalent in both developed
and developing country contexts (Mair and Marti, 2006; Wang et al,
2015).  While
many social enterprises originate in the developed world, others, such as
Bangladesh’s *BRAC*, dedicated to alleviating poverty, have emerged out of
developing countries.  Yet, cross-country comparative research is rare
(Kerlin, 2012) and, as a result, a comprehensive understanding of the
phenomenon is lacking.  This special issue provides an opportunity to
introduce the social enterprise phenomenon into the international business
literature, in an effort to upgrade and cross-fertilize the two research
streams. We highlight that research on social enterprises in relation to
their conceptualization (Carraher, Welsh and Svilokos, 2016), drivers
(Méndez-Picazo et al., 2015), internationalization process (Zhara et al.,
2008), placement (Mair and Schoen, 2007) modes of entry (Wang et al.,
2015), and impacts (Mersland et al., 2011) is still underexplored and
provide the underlying motivation for this Special Issue.

The internationalization of social enterprises is driven by a number of
factors, including global wealth disparity, corporate social
responsibility, market failures, technological advances and shared
responsibility efforts (Zahra et al., 2008). Their international expansion
is commonly driven by the global nature of the problem addressed, such as
health services, and the lack of available local or national resources. The
rapid growth of social enterprises is further fueled by a significant
increase in the capital mobilized by so-called impact investment funds,
i.e. funds that typically invest in social enterprises. For example, a
recent report by *J.P. Morgan* and *The Global Impact Investing Network*
indicate that 8 billion US dollars were committed to impact investments in
2012 and an additional 9 billion US dollars in 2013.

The internationalization of social enterprises takes different forms.  Some
social enterprises are born global, such as *CURE*, an Ohio-based
non-profit dedicated to the treatment of childhood cancer in China,
and *Lifenet
*International, based in Florida and dedicated to provide quality and
sustainable healthcare to the poor in sub-Saharan Africa.  Others follow an
incremental and gradual internationalization, such as *Dialogue in the Dark*,
which started in Germany and expanded slowly to more than 40 countries.

Social enterprises are important to public policy as they address market
imperfections and lower the burden on governments.  Thus, there is a
growing interest in social enterprises as these may reduce long term public
(or private) subsidies (Zahra et al., 2009), and contribute to social
change, empowerment, and economic development (Chell, 2007).  Sometimes
their internationalization is seen as politically desirable, while at other
times they are faced with hostility or mistrust (e.g., Economist, 2014).

Many social enterprises have scalable business models both across countries
and across the value chain.  Recent years have seen the emergence of
multinational social enterprises (MNSE). For example, *Riders for Health*
enables the delivery of healthcare services through vehicle fleets and
operations across more than 10 countries in Africa.  The well-known *Grameen
Foundation* operates microfinance institutions across 36 countries and has
claimed to help about 10 million of the world’s poor.  *Dialogue in Social
Enterprises* operates three concepts in over 40 countries to facilitate
social inclusion of disabled, disadvantaged and elderly people on a global
basis.  Numerous social enterprises serve a global need in multiple
operating environments using complex organizational structures. Other
social enterprises are small and local providing an opportunity for
researchers to examine the scalability of these enterprises, on the one
hand, and compare these to similar organizations in other locations, on the
other hand.

Several theories have been identified as promising channels for the study
of the internationalization of the social enterprises, including
cosmopolitanism, pro-social, internalization (Zahra et al. 2008),
structuration theory, institutional entrepreneurship, social capital,
social movement (Mair and Marti, 2005), sustainability, non-profit,
grounded theory (Weerawardena and Mort, 2006), resource-based and network
theories (Westhead et al, 2006).

We are seeking conceptual, theoretical and empirical (both quantitative and
qualitative) papers that advance the state of knowledge on
internationalization of social enterprises. Topics include, but are not
limited to:

·         The internationalization process of social enterprises. Do extant
theories apply?

·         Typologies of social enterprises and new theory of the
multinational social enterprise

·         Scalability of social enterprises across diverse locations

·         Determinants of born global social enterprises

·         Comparative research among social enterprises in developed and
developing countries

·         Market selection and modes of entry of social enterprises

·         International networks and stakeholders and their influence on
social enterprises

·         The international landscape of impact investors and their
influence on social enterprises

·         The trade-off between financial and social performance in
international social enterprises

·         The finance of international social enterprises

·         International issues in microfinance, microfranchising, and the
“bottom of the pyramid” businesses and related organizations

·         Structure and strategy of international social enterprises

·         Determinants of internationalization of social enterprises,
including social mission focused businesses

·         Impact of social enterprises in differing market conditions

·         Entrepreneurial and managerial antecedents of international
social networks

·         Internal and external antecedents of international social

*Submission process*

Authors should submit complete manuscripts between the 1st and the 31st of
January 2018 via the *JWB *EVISE online submission system at To ensure that all manuscripts
are correctly identified for consideration for this special issue, it is
important that authors select *‘SI: Int. Soc. Entr.’ *when they reach the
“Article Type” step in the online submission process. Manuscripts should be
prepared in accordance with the *JWB *Guide for Authors available on the
journal web page. All submitted manuscripts will be subject to *the JWB*’s
blind review process.

*Questions about the Special Issue may be directed to the guest editors or
supervising editor:*

  Ilan Alon, University of Agder ([log in to unmask])

Roy Mersland, University of Agder ([log in to unmask])

Trond Randøy, University of Agder ([log in to unmask])

Oded Shenkar, Ohio State University ([log in to unmask])

Martina Musteen, San Diego State University ([log in to unmask])


Battilana, J. & Dorado, S. (2010). Building sustainable hybrid
organizations: The case of commercial microfinance organizations. *Academy
of Management Journal*, 53 (6): 1419-1440

Carraher, S. M., Welsh, D.H.B., & Svilokos, A. (2016). Validation of a
measure of social entrepreneurship. *European Journal of International
Management*, 16(4): 386-402.

Chell, E. (2007). Social enterprise and entrepreneurship towards a
convergent theory of the entrepreneurial process. International small
business journal, 25(1): 5-26.

J.P. Morgan. (2013). Perspectives on Progress: The Impact Investor
Survey. *J.P.Morgan
and Global Impact Investing Network*. 1-28.

Kerlin, J.A. (2012). Defining Social Enterprise across Different Contexts:
A Conceptual Framework Based on Institutional Factors. *Nonprofit and
Voluntary Sector Quarterly*, 42(1): 84-108.

Lönnroth, K., Aung, T., Maung, W., Kluge, H., & Uplekar, M. (2007). Social
franchising of TB care through private GPs in Myanmar: an assessment of
treatment results, access, equity and financial protection. *Health Policy
and Planning*, 22(3): 156-166.

Mair, J. & Martí, I. (2006).  Social entrepreneurship research: A source of
explanation, prediction, and delight. *Journal of World Business*, 41(1):

Mair, J., & Schoen, O. (2007). Successful social entrepreneurial business
models in the context of developing economies: An explorative study*.
Journal of Emerging Markets*,  2 (1), 54-68.

McKenna, G. R. (2013). Tackling labour market exclusion of homeless people:
The role of social enterprise (Doctoral dissertation, Middlesex University).

Méndez-Picazo, M. T., Ribeiro-Soriano, D., & Galindo-Martín, M. Á. N.
(2015). Drivers of social entrepreneurship. *European Journal of
International Management*,  9 (6): 766-779.

Mersland, R., Randøy, T. & Strøm, R. Ø. (2011). The impact of international
influence on microbanks’ performance: A global survey. *International
Business Review*, 20 (2): 163-176.

Miller, T.L., Grimes, M.G., McMullen, J.S., & Vogus, T.J. (2012). Venturing
for others with heart and head: How compassion encourages social
entrepreneurship. *Academy of Management Review*, 37(4): 616-640.

Randøy, T. Strøm, R. Ø. & Mersland, R. (2015). The Impact of
entrepreneur-CEOs in microfinance institutions:  A global survey.
Theory & Practice*, 39 (4): 927-953.

Sharir, M., & Lerner, M. (2006). Gauging the success of social ventures
initiated by individual social entrepreneurs. Journal of World Business, 41
(1): 6-20.

The Economist. (2014) Foreign Funding of NGOs: Donors: keep out. September
11 Issue:

Wang, H., Alon, I., & Kimble, C. (2015). Dialogue in the dark: Shedding
light on the development of social enterprises in China. *Global Business
and Organizational Excellence*, 34(4): 60-69.

Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. S. (2006). Investigating social
entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. *Journal of World Business*, 41(1):

Westhead, P., Wright, M., & Ucbasaran, D. (2002). International market
selection strategies selected by ‘micro’and ‘small’firms. *Omega*, 30(1):

Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A
typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical
challenges. *Journal of Business Venturing*, 24(5): 519-532.

Zahra, S. A., Rawhouser, H. N., Bhawe, N., Neubaum, D. O., & Hayton, J. C.
(2008). Globalization of social entrepreneurship opportunities. *Strategic
Entrepreneurship Journal*, 2(2): 117-131.

*Research Data*

Research data forms the backbone of research articles and provides the
foundation on which knowledge is built.  Researchers are increasingly
encouraged, or even mandated, to make research data available, accessible,
discoverable and usable.  Although not mandatory, the journal encourages
authors to submit their data at the same time as their manuscript. Further
information can be found at:

Martina Claasen Musteen, Ph.D.
Professor, Management Department
Senior Editor,
*Journal of World Business*Faculty Director, *Center for International
Business Education and Research *(CIBER)
Fowler College of Business
San Diego State University
5500 Campanile Dr.
San Diego, CA 92182-8346

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