Paper submission deadline: 30th September 2016
Yvonne McNulty, SIM University Singapore
Kelly Fisher, West Chester University, USA
Charles Vance, Loyola Marymount University, USA
Over the past 50 years, studies of corporate expatriates and the multinational corporations (MNCs) that employ them have dominated the field of international human resource management (IHRM; e.g., Edström & Galbraith, 1977; Gonzalez & Negandhi, 1967; Hays, 1971; Howard, 1974; Ivancevich, 1969; Tung, 1981). Corporate expatriates are people who typically work for MNCs in the private and for-profit business sector, and who are sent by their organizations to work abroad or employed by businesses once already there. Missing from our understanding of expatriation is a broader look at global mobility across non-corporate communities, such as military, religious (missionary), academic, sport, arts, diplomatic and non-profit expatriation. Studies in these areas are not only under-represented, but in some cases non-existent (e.g., sports and arts). We contend that the dearth of research beyond corporate expatriation is likely due to a common but unnecessarily narrow conceptualization of expatriates as being sent abroad only by an MNC or business organization (see McNulty & Brewster, 2016 for a critique). This limited perspective ignores the employees and volunteers of non-corporate communities who work outside their home country for specific organisations but who do not fall under the umbrella of ‘corporate’ expatriation. It also ignores those who, within the domain of these other communities, have not been sent by their employer but expatriate of their own accord or elect to find employment or change employer whilst already living abroad.
While corporate expatriation has been well researched in the fields of IHRM (Black, Gregersen, & Mendenhall, 1992; Tung, 1988), careers (Cappellen & Janssens, 2005; Herman & Tetrick, 2009), international management (IM) (Gregersen & Black, 1995; Takeuchi, 2010), and international business (IB) (Lazarova & Cerdin, 2007; Reiche, Harzing, & Kraimer, 2009; Tung, 1984), the implicit structuring of the expatriation concept as being a predominantly corporate phenomenon, unless stated otherwise, has limited what has been studied as well as where data is collected and fieldwork conducted. Moreover, as research on expatriation across communities is frequently published in disciplines other than the IHRM, careers, IM and IB fields, management scholars’ limited exposure to the ideas, insights and challenges that global mobility in other communities presents has narrowed how these alternative perspectives can inform management thinking. These ‘other’ disciplines include (among others) missions and theology (Trimble, 2006), public policy (Tresch, 2009; Wilkinson & Singh, 2010), sport (Elliott & Weedon, 2011), demography and population (McKinnish, 2008), diversity (Mahadevan & Zeh, 2015), migration (Hugo, 2006), sociology (Useem & Useem, 1967), hospitality and hotel management (Causin, Ayoun, & Moreo, 2011), education and training (Munene, 2014), corruption (Francis & Armstrong, 2011), disaster prevention and management (Wilson & Gielissen, 2004), linguistics (Dewaele & van Oudenhoven, 2009), medicine and travel (Druckman, Harber, Liu, & Quigley, 2014), mental health (Bikos et al., 2009), and logistics and supply chain management (Kelly, 1996).
With this Special Issue, we are seeking to broaden our understanding of expatriation beyond corporate global mobility. We invite manuscripts from any discipline across a range of research approaches including original quantitative and qualitative empirical
research, theory development, case studies, and critical literature reviews. We are interested in articles that address an issue relating to expatriation and global mobility in a non-corporate community, which we define as any of the following noting this
is not an exhaustive list:
• Military expatriation including active duty, retired (veteran), and reservist expatriates (e.g., Fisher & Hutchings, 2013; Schreurs & Syed, 2011)
• Religious (missionary) expatriation involving traditional, professionally qualified, community development and humanitarian, and tent maker missions (e.g., Navara & James, 2005; Oberholster, Clarke, Bendixen, & Dastoor, 2013)
• Sports expatriation involving relocation for amateur or professional leagues, training purposes, and to coach sports teams (e.g., Dolles & Egilsson, 2016; Madichie, 2009)
• Academic expatriation including those who relocate as professors/international scholars (e.g., Fulbright) or in tertiary institutions; international school teachers, administrators, and staff; and other educators (Roberts, 2015; Selmer & Lauring, 2011)
• Diplomatic and foreign service expatriation (government civil service) (e.g., Davoine, Ravasi, Salamin, & Cudré-Mauroux, 2013; Selmer & Fenner Jr, 2009)
• Non-profit expatriation, e.g., aid workers and inter-governmental agencies, volunteer missions, and disaster preparation (e.g., Fee & Gray, 2011; Merlot & De Cieri, 2011)
• Arts expatriates, e.g., actors, theatre directors and producers, artists, dancers, authors, photographers and other creative professions
Topics for research in non-corporate communities include but are not limited to:
• Career development, talent management and repatriation including retention initiatives and turnover challenges
• Gender imbalances as well as the gendering of work roles in general
• Expatriation and entrepreneurship
• Expatriation/global mobility planning, including crisis planning and management and duty of care for expatriates working in dangerous locations
• Family issues including dual-career challenges, family stress, split family arrangements where family members remain in the home-country and/or a ‘safer’ host-country while the other spouse commutes to a more dangerous location, and schooling for children
• Third culture kids (TCKs), cross cultural kids (CCKs) and adult TCKs
• Compensation and benefits including localization strategies and issues
• Selection and preparation of expatriates including cross cultural issues
• Expatriate adjustment and performance
• Return on investment, stakeholder management and expatriate success and failure
• Non-traditional expatriates, e.g., LGBT expatriates, single parents, special needs and gifted children
• Global staffing, international work flows and knowledge transfer (brain drain/gain)
• Differences and similarities in the expatriate experience between corporate and other expatriate communities including global mobility policy development and differences
• Generalizable insights from other expatriate communities that can inform and expand broader expatriate theory
Please note that we are not looking for submissions that: (a) deal exclusively with corporate expatriation or corporate international assignees; and, (b) are focused on refugees, migrants or temporary visitors (sojourners, long-term tourists). For the purposes of this Special Issue we define expatriates/expatriation as involving temporary legal employment in a host country for which the individual is not (intending to become) a citizen. Authors who may be unsure whether their paper fits the Special Issue theme are welcome to contact the editors to discuss.
Submission Process and Timeline
Submitted papers must be based on original material not under consideration by any other journal or publishing outlet. The editors will select up to 6 papers to be included in the Special Issue, but other submissions may be considered for regular issues of the journal. All papers will undergo a double-blind peer review process and will be evaluated by at least two reviewers and a Special Issue editor.
To be considered for the Special Issue, manuscripts can be submitted anytime between February and September 2016 but no later than
30 September 2016, 5:00pm Central European Time. Final acceptance is dependent on the following:
(1) Theoretical contribution: Does the article offer novel and innovative insights and/or meaningfully extend existing theory in the field of global mobility?
(2) Empirical contribution: Does the article offer novel findings and are the study design, analysis, and results rigorous and appropriate in testing hypotheses or research questions?
(3) Practical contribution: Does the article improve the management of global mobility?
(4) Contribution to the special issue topic.
Authors should prepare their manuscripts for blind review according to the Journal of Global Mobility author guidelines, available at www.emeraldinsight.com/jgm.htm. Please remove any information that may potentially reveal the identity of the authors to the reviewers. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically at: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jgmob. When submitting through the ScholarOne system, please be sure to select the correct Special Issue title from the drop down menu. For enquiries regarding the special issue please contact either of the three Guest Editors, Yvonne McNulty at [log in to unmask]; Kelly Fisher at [log in to unmask]; and Charles Vance at [log in to unmask].
Paper submission deadline: 30 September 2016
Acceptance notification: 1 February 2017
Publication: April-June 2017
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Black, J., Gregersen, H., & Mendenhall, M. 1992. Toward a theoretical framework of repatriation adjustment. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4): 737-758.
Cappellen, T., & Janssens, M. 2005. Career paths of global managers: Towards future research. Journal of World Business, 40(4): 348-360.
Causin, G., Ayoun, B., & Moreo, P. 2011. Expatriation in the hotel industry: An exploratory study of management skills and cultural training. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(7): 885-901.
Davoine, E., Ravasi, C., Salamin, X., & Cudré-Mauroux, C. 2013. A "dramaturgical" analysis of spouse role enactment in expatriation: An exploratory gender comparative study in the diplomatic and consular field. Journal of Global Mobility, 1(1): 92-112.
Dewaele, J.-M., & van Oudenhoven, J. 2009. The effect of multilingualism/multiculturalism on personality: no gain without pain for Third Culture Kids? International Journal of Multilingualism, 6(4): 443-459.
Dolles, H., & Egilsson, B. 2016. Sports expatriates. In Y. McNulty, & J. Selmer (Eds.), The Research Handbook of Expatriates: Forthcoming. London: Edward Elgar.
Druckman, M., Harber, P., Liu, Y., & Quigley, R. 2014. Assessing the risk of work-related international travel. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56(11): 1161-1166.
Edström, A., & Galbraith, J. 1977. Transfer of managers as a coordination and control strategy in multinational organisations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(2): 248-263.
Elliott, R., & Weedon, G. 2011. Foreign players in the English Academy League: ‘Feetdrain’ or ‘feet-exchange’? International Review for the Sociology of Sport 46(1): 61-75.
Fee, A., & Gray, S. J. 2011. Fast-tracking expatriate development: the unique learning environments of international volunteer placements. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(3): 530-552.
Fisher, K., & Hutchings, K. 2013. Making sense of cultural distance for military expatriates operating in an extreme context. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34: 791-812.
Francis, R., & Armstrong, A. 2011. Corruption and whistleblowing in international humanitarian aid agencies. Journal of Financial Crime, 18(4): 319-335.
Gonzalez, R., & Negandhi, A. 1967. The United States Overseas Executive: His Orientations and Career Patterns. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
Gregersen, H., & Black, J. 1995. Keeping high performers after international assignments: A key to global executive development. Journal of International Management, 1(1): 3-31.
Hays, R. 1971. Ascribed behavioral determinants of success-failure among US expatriate managers. Journal of International Business Studies, 2(1?): 40-46.
Herman, J., & Tetrick, L. 2009. Problem-focused versus emotion-focused coping strategies and repatriation adjustment. Human Resource Management, 48(1): 69-88.
Howard, C. 1974. The returning overseas executive - culture shock in reverse. Human Resource Management, 13(2): 22-26.
Hugo, G. 2006. An Australian Diaspora? International Migration, 44(1): 105-133.
Ivancevich, J. 1969. Selection of American managers for overseas assignments. Personnel Journal, 48(3): 189-200.
Kelly, C. 1996. Limitations to the use of military resources for foreign disaster assistance. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 5(1): 22-29.
Lazarova, M., & Cerdin, J. 2007. Revisiting repatriation concerns: Organizational support versus career and contextual influences. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(3): 404-429.
Madichie, N. 2009. Management implications of foreign players in the English Premiership League football. Management Decision, 47(1): 24-50.
Mahadevan, J., & Zeh, J. 2015. Third country graduates and their transition to the German labor market: Understanding dominant identity categories, strangerness and agency in context. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 34(4): 325-345.
McKinnish, T. 2008. Spousal mobility and earnings. Demography, 45(4): 829-849.
McNulty, Y., & Brewster, C. 2016. The Meanings of Expatriate. In Y. McNulty, & J. Selmer (Eds.), The Research Handbook of Expatriates: Forthcoming. London: Edward Elgar.
Merlot, E., & De Cieri, H. 2011. The challenges of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami for strategic international human resource management in multinational nonprofit enterprises. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(7): 1303-1319.
Munene, I. 2014. Outsiders within: Isolation of international faculty in an American university. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 19(4): 450-467.
Navara, G., & James, S. 2005. Acculturative stress of missionaries: Does religious orientation affect religious coping and adjustment? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(1): 39-58.
Oberholster, B., Clarke, R., Bendixen, M., & Dastoor, B. 2013. Expatriate motivation in relgious and humanitarian non-profit-organisations. Journal of Global Mobility, 1(1): 7-27.
Reiche, B., Harzing, A.-W., & Kraimer, M. 2009. The role of international assignees' social capital in creating inter-unit intellectual capital: A cross-level model. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(3): 509-526.
Roberts, D. 2015. Expatriate workers in international higher education. Journal of College and Character 16(1): 37-43.
Schreurs, B., & Syed, F. 2011. Battling the war for talent: An application in a military context. Career Development International, 16(1): 36-59.
Selmer, J., & Fenner Jr, C. 2009. Spillover effects between work and non-work adjustment among public sector expatriates. Personnel Review, 38(4): 366-379.
Selmer, J., & Lauring, J. 2011. Expatriate academics: job factors and work outcomes. International Journal of Manpower, 32(2): 194-210.
Takeuchi, R. 2010. A critical review of expatriate adjustment research: Progress, emerging trends, and prospects. Journal of Management, 36: 1040-1064.
Tresch, T. 2009. Cultural and political challenges in military missions: How officers view multiculturality in armed forces. In G. Caforio (Ed.), Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos, Vol. 12: 111-137. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Trimble, D. 2006. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention of missionaries. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 34(4): 349-360.
Tung, R. 1981. Selection and training of personnel for overseas assignments. Columbia Journal of World Business, 16(1): 68-78.
Tung, R. 1984. Human resource planning in Japanese multinationals: A model for US firms? Journal of International Business Studies, 15(2): 139-149.
Tung, R. 1988. Career issues in international assignments. Academy of Management Executive, 11(3): 241-244.
Useem, R., & Useem, J. 1967. The interfaces of a binational third culture: A study of the American community in India. Journal of Social Issues, 22(1): 130-143.
Wilkinson, A., & Singh, G. 2010. Managing stress in the expatriate family: A case study of the State Department of the United States of America. Public Personnel Management, 39(2): 169-181.
Wilson, J., & Gielissen, H. 2004. Managing secondary PTSD among personnel deployed in post-conflict countries. Disaster Prevention and Management, 13(3): 199-207.
Professor Jan Selmer, Ph.D.
Journal of Global Mobility (JGM)
The Home of Expatriate Management Research (Emerald)
Department of Management
Aarhus BSS - School of Business and Social Sciences