*[image: Inline image 1]*

 *Special Section on*

*What do we know and what should we know about international knowledge

*Guest Editors*

*Keld Laursen (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark):* [log in to unmask]

*Grazia D. Santangelo (University of Catania, Italy)*: [log in to unmask]

*Call for papers*

International knowledge sourcing has for a long period of time been a hot
topic in the innovation studies literature. Scholars in this tradition
initially debated on the magnitude of this phenomenon (Cantwell 1995
<#_ENREF_5>; Patel & Pavitt 1991 <#_ENREF_16>), while converging on the
idea that international knowledge sourcing is a “North-North” phenomenon
with R&D FDI departing from advanced countries and targeting other advanced
countries (see e.g., Arvanitis & Hollenstein 2011 <#_ENREF_2>; Cantwell &
Piscitello 2000 <#_ENREF_7>). As a result, the hierarchy of foreign R&D
locations concerns mainly advanced country locations (Cantwell & Janne 1999
<#_ENREF_6>; Patel & Vega 1999 <#_ENREF_17>), which are ranked on the
ground of technology- and R&D activity-specific advantages (Dunning &
Narula 1995 <#_ENREF_11>; Florida 1997 <#_ENREF_13>; Pearce &
Papanastassiou 1999 <#_ENREF_18>). Innovation studies research has also
suggested that R&D internationalization increasingly aims at sourcing
knowledge abroad in order to complement and enhance  knowledge production
at home (Almeida 1996 <#_ENREF_1>; Cantwell & Santangelo 2000 <#_ENREF_8>).

However, the most recent statistics and an increasing number of studies
paint a “North-South” as well as a “South-North” picture of the phenomenon
challenging the stylized facts that research on international knowledge
sourcing has traditionally documented. Emerging economies are nowadays
major host locations of R&D offshoring. R&D FDI departs from advanced
countries and target primarily emerging economies, which are now top-ranked
in the hierarchy of foreign R&D locations (Contractor et al. 2010
<#_ENREF_9>; D'Agostino et al. 2013 <#_ENREF_10>; UNCTAD 2005 <#_ENREF_19>).
A parallel increasing pattern is the offshoring of R&D by firms originating
in emerging economies and targeting advanced countries (UNCTAD 2005
<#_ENREF_19>; Von Zedtwitz 2006 <#_ENREF_20>). Thus, the emergence of new
locations and players has transformed knowledge sourcing from a
cross-border to a truly global phenomenon.

 These recent developments raise questions related to the effective
possibility of “traditional” actors to source knowledge at
“non-traditional” locations as well as the effective capability of
“non-traditional” actors to source knowledge in “traditional” locations.
Although emerging economies are experiencing an upgrading of technological
capabilities and enjoy a large availability of talents (Athreye & Cantwell
2007 <#_ENREF_3>; Lewin et al. 2009 <#_ENREF_14>), yet, the ability of
these new locations to develop state-of-the-art knowledge remains open to
debate (von Zedtwitz & Gassmann 2002 <#_ENREF_21>). Specifically, a
critical issue concerns the type of knowledge and R&D activities that are
more likely to be sourced and located in emerging economies, and the new
international division of labor in knowledge production that has emerged as
a consequence (Fifarek & Veloso 2010 <#_ENREF_12>). The fact that recent
statistics on R&D internationalization have documented document a growing
involvement of emerging economies as host locations of R&D FDI has raised
great interest (Moncada-Paternò-Castello et al. 2011 <#_ENREF_15>), but the
phenomenon is not fully understood at this point in time. Likewise, there
is some evidence that firms located in fast-growing emerging economies
perform FDI in developed economies with a technology-seeking intent (Athreye
& Kapur 2009 <#_ENREF_4>). Also this phenomenon is not fully understood
from theoretical and empirical points of view.

The focus of the special section is on emerging economies as host locations
of R&D offshoring departing from advanced locations as well as home
locations of R&D offshoring targeting advanced countries. Theoretical and
empirical arguments motivate this choice. Whether international knowledge
sourcing follows a “North-South” (“Northern” firms investing in the
“South”) or a “South-North” (“Southern” firms investing in the “North”)
pattern, these perspectives represent two sides of the same coin and both
challenge our current knowledge of the phenomenon.

The special section welcomes both theoretical and empirical contributions,
which draw on different theoretical streams, adopt diverse empirical
approaches, and apply a single or multi-level analysis. Possible topics and
research questions that would be appropriate for this special section would
include, but would not be limited to, the following list:

·       The most recent statistics document that emerging economies are now
top-ranked in the hierarchy of foreign R&D locations. But can firms from
developed countries effectively source knowledge in “non-traditional”
locations? What is the effect of R&D investments in these locations on the
investors’ performance?

·       Recent research points out to a new international division of labor
in knowledge production challenging the “North-North” pattern traditionally
characterizing the knowledge sourcing phenomenon. What type of knowledge
and R&D activities should be strategically outsourced and what type kept at
home? What are the interaction mechanisms between offshored and home-base
R&D activities? How do such mechanisms affect performance?

·       Emerging economies have experienced an upgrading of technological
capabilities and enjoy a large availability of talents, but are actors in
these locations able to develop state-of-the-art technology?

·       Recent statistics on R&D internationalization document a growing
involvement of emerging economies as home locations of R&D FDI. What type
of knowledge are emerging markets firms able to effectively source in
developed countries—and for what purposes?

*Submissions should be prepared in accordance with Industrial and Corporate
Change guidelines and submitted by July 1, 2015 via email to the guest
editors: **[log in to unmask]
<[log in to unmask]>*


Almeida, P. (1996), 'Knowledge sourcing by foreign multinationals: Patent
citation analysis in the U.S. semiconductor industry', *Strategic
Management Journal*, *17* (Special Issue: Knowledge and the Firm): 155-165.

Arvanitis, S. and H. Hollenstein (2011), 'How do different drivers of R&D
investment in foreign locations affect domestic firm performance? An
analysis based on Swiss panel micro data', *Industrial and Corporate Change*,
*20* (2): 605-640.

Athreye, S. and J. Cantwell (2007), 'Creating competition?: Globalisation
and the emergence of new technology producers', *Research Policy*, *36*
(2): 209-226.

Athreye, S. and S. Kapur (2009), 'Introduction: The internationalization of
Chinese and Indian firms—trends, motivations and strategy', *Industrial and
Corporate Change*, *18* (2): 209-221.

Cantwell, J. (1995), 'The globalisation of technology: what remains of the
product cycle model?', *Cambridge Journal of Economics*, *19*: 155-155.

Cantwell, J. and O. Janne (1999), 'Technological globalisation and
innovative centres: the role of corporate technological leadership and
locational hierarchy', *Research Policy*, *28* (2-3): 119-144.

Cantwell, J. and L. Piscitello (2000), 'Accumulating technological
competence: its changing impact on corporate diversification and
internationalization', *Industrial and Corporate Change*, *9* (1): 21-51.

Cantwell, J. and G. D. Santangelo (2000), 'Capitalism, profits and
innovation in the new techno-economic paradigm', *Journal of Evolutionary
Economics*, *10* (1): 131-157.

Contractor, F. J., V. Kumar, S. K. Kundu and T. Pedersen (2010),
'Reconceptualizing the firm in a world of outsourcing and offshoring: The
organizational and geographical relocation of high-value company
functions', *Journal of Management Studies*, *47* (8): 1417-1433.

D'Agostino, L. M., K. Laursen and G. D. Santangelo (2013), 'The impact of
R&D offshoring on the home knowledge production of OECD investing
regions', *Journal
of Economic Geography*, *13* (1): 145-175.

Dunning, J. H. and R. Narula (1995), 'The R&D activities of foreign firms
in the United States', *International Studies of Management and
Organisation*, *25* (1-2): 39-73.

Fifarek, B. J. and F. M. Veloso (2010), 'Offshoring and the global
geography of innovation', *Journal of Economic Geography*, *10* (4):

Florida, R. (1997), 'The globalization of R & D: Results of a survey of
foreign-affiliated R&D laboratories in the USA', *Research Policy*, *26*:

Lewin, A., S. Massini and Peeters (2009), 'Why are companies offshoring
innovation? The emerging global race of talent', *Journal of International
Business Strategy*, *40*: 901-925.

Moncada-Paternò-Castello, P., M. Vivarelli and P. Voigt (2011), 'Drivers
and impacts in the globalization of corporate R&D: an introduction based on
the European experience', *Industrial and Corporate Change*, *20* (2):

Patel, P. and K. Pavitt (1991), 'Large Firms in the Production of the
World's Technology: An Important Case of "Non-Globalisation"', *Journal of
International Business Studies*, *22* (1): 1-21.

Patel, P. and M. Vega (1999), 'Patterns of internationalisation of
corporate technology: location vs. home country advantages', *Research
Policy*, *28* (2–3): 145-155.

Pearce, R. D. and M. Papanastassiou (1999), 'Overseas R&D and the strategic
evolution of MNEs: evidence from laboratories in the UK', *Research Policy*,
*28*: 23-41.

UNCTAD (2005), 'World Investment Report. TNCs and the Internationalization
of R&D', United Nations, Geneva.

Von Zedtwitz, M. (2006), 'International R&D strategies of TNCs from
developing countries: the case of China', in UNCTAD (ed.), *Globalization
of R&D and developing countries. Proceedings of an Expert Meeting*, United
Nations, New York & Geneva.

von Zedtwitz, M. and O. Gassmann (2002), 'Market versus technology drive in
R&D internationalization: four different patterns of managing research and
development', *Research Policy*, *31* (4): 569-588.

Professor Grazia Santangelo
Jean Monnet Chair International Business for European Union (IB4EU)
Department of Political and Social Science
University of Catania
Via Vittorio Emanuele II, 8
95131 Catania


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