AIB-L has received a number of additional post requests in response to the
Griffin & Pustay discussion that Nnamdi initiated.  Since we have already
received a response from Michael Pustay, one of the authors of the textbook
concerned, we will not approve individual posts any longer, but instead send
all further responses grouped together to prevent the overcrowding of the
email boxes of our members. This email includes 5 comments we have received
so far.  If additional responses come in, we will issue another follow up
later in the week.  




Dear Tunga:


Thank you for that expanded review of the situation. You are absolutely
right that Griffin and Pustay's textbook is one of the best in IB, albeit
their book is too expansive to be taught at undergraduate level. I wish that
they consider putting out an edition for undergraduate level since quality
books at that level is hard to come by.


On the issue of cultural clusters, I tend to think that categorization is
outdated, and quite honestly, so is the foundations of Ronen and Shenkar's
article. There are much better categorizations (e.g., Hofstede; GLOBE;
Schwartz; Trompenaars) out there which have a broader applicability in
modern IB. 


Thanks for sharing again.


Warm regards,



Learning is not compulsory, but have you learned anything today?


Shah Jamali

Ph.D., MBA., MA/International Relations

Managing Partner

Jamalis & Partners, LLC

International Management Consultants

E-mail: [log in to unmask]




Dear Tunga and Others who are speaking to the underlying issue that implies
(common) lack of understandingabout places and how they fit as countries,
states, cities, etc.

In my experience - teaching at the graduate level - it was, for example, all
too common to find students writing about "Africa" as a country with seeming
little if any comprehension that Africa is actually a continent comprised on
many independent countries.

It is particularly important in this era of globalization, and a growing
international business community, that places and what they are are clear in
peoples' minds and practice.

Another (related) issue I've observed is for a particular university to open
campuses in different places across the world and call the move to extend
the global reach a globalization effort. There is a great difference between
extending global presence and the deeper understanding of what a global
presence/reach is really about. 


Kudos to the students who questioned what they read - this is a wonderful
example of pushback and applied critical thinking.

Jane Ross, PhD.

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First I should declare an interest in this as I did an Australian Adaptation
of the Griffin and Pustay text in 2006. (I am no longer involved with
adapting the Griffin and Pustay text, for reasons totally unrelated to this


I am happy to be corrected if I am wrong, but 


1.            The Rohen and Shenkar(1885) review article  quoted in  Griffin
and Pustay, reviews  and synthesis 8 articles on county clusters.  

2.            These articles were published between 1966 and 1980. The
empirical articles reviewed either used prior to 1971 data, or used data
that was grouped prior to 1971 by the corporate structure of MNCs or
location of local companies.

3.            Qatar became independent of the UK in 1971

4.            The UAE came into existence as a federation of absolute
monarchies in 1971

5.            The key reason that Abu Dhabi, and  Dubai are listed
separately was because the empirical articles s used in the 1985 review by
Rohen and Shenkar  reported them separately

6.            The key reason that Qatar is not included was because it was
not researched in any or the 8 country cluster articles.


So it is absolutely appropriate to report Abu Dhabi and Dubai separately, as
that was how the data was collected for the clusters. It is absolutely
appropriate to leave out Qatar, because data was not collected for the
cluster in the Country clusters research quoted by Griffin and Pustay.  


It is perfectly valid to discuss

a. the usefulness of clusters and

b. if more recent cluster research


When I did the Australian adaption of the Griffin and Pustay text in  2006,
I decided that the chapter was in part  providing an chronological
description of how perceptions of culture had changed As such I chose to
leave the reporting of  Rohen and Shenkar.  We added comments about
Dubai/AbuDhabi etc in the instructors support material. 


Associate Professor Greg Fisher

Discipline Leader, Management and Human Resources

MBA Director

Convenor Management in the Professions Research Group

Flinders Business School

Flinders University

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T +61 8 82013118

m. +61 423 22 33 79





Hi Linzi,


Actually building on this discussion, I agree there is definitely a need for
collaborative IB research around the globe. Dr. Bullough and I actually have
a short article forthcoming on AIB-Insights special issue on the Middle East
that makes the point of needing to revisit our western lens when
investigating other cultures particularly in the Middle East, questioning
whether studying them from western base lens is doing this justice and the
need to break away from stereotypes that even we researchers may sometimes
be guilty of without knowing.


I look forward to being part of such collaborative truly global research to
understand phenomenon using multiple geographic lenses. 


Dina Zaher 

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Dear Nmandi (Tunga & others who have contributed to this issue):


My name is Ricardo Flores, an assistant professor at UNSW (Sydney). I second
Michael's suggestion of Professor Littrell recent work on cultural clusters
and I'd like to add an interesting paper (that although not that new, it is
still relevant given its different based data coming from the GLOBE project)


Gupta, V., Hanges, P. J., & Dorfman, P. 2002. Cultural clusters: Methodology
and findings. Journal of World Business, 37: 11-15.


Lastly, if people are interesting in going beyond cultural clustering and
considering clustering or regional groupings more broadly, I'd like to
suggest two papers I have worked on with some colleagues from Illinois &
Minnesota (Ruth Aguilera, Paul Vaaler & Arash Mahdian).


Flores, R., Aguilera, R., Vaaler, P., Mahdian, A. (2013) . How well do
supra-national regional grouping schemes fit International Business research
models?. Journal of International Business Studies (forthcoming)


Aguilera, R., Flores, R., & Vaaler, P. 2007. Is it all a matter of grouping?
Examining the regional effect in global strategy research. In S. Tallman
(Ed.), A New Generation in International Strategic Management: 209-228.
Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.


Hoping to have contributed to this discussion,



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