"‘Strategies for Firm Globalization and Regionalization’’
Professor Alan M. Rugman (Henley Business School), Professor Abby
Ghobadian (Henley Business School), Professor Rosalie L. Tung (Simon
BJM is pleased to announce a special issue focused on examining
the globalisation and regionalization strategies of firms, a key debate
in international business which touches on all disciplines of management.
SPECIAL ISSUE OVERVIEW
Over the last decade, a debate has raged about the nature of business
strategy following Levitt (1983). Many authors had assumed that with the
growth of globalization, it is possible for firms to expand globally.
Such international expansion yields economies of scale, a so-called
integration strategy. A leading proponent of this approach is George Yip
(1995, 2003) who proposes a “total global” strategy. In contrast, Rugman
(2000, 2005) has demonstrated empirically that there are rigidities in
both country level and firm level economic activity respectively. This
work suggests that firms must be using regional strategies, not global
ones, and that the regions are triad based. Schlie and Yip (2000) have
argued that regional strategy is a step towards a global strategy. In a
British context, the multinational strategies and performance of large
British firms have been examined by Rugman, Yip and Jayaratne (2008).
This stressed a strong home region focus upon Europe with 64 percent of
sales of British firms in the EU. The way organisations develop
internationally has implications not only for strategy but also for
structure, organisational development, human resources (HR),
institutional engagement, societal engagement, and political engagement.
The current economic crisis is forcing organisations to rethink their
strategies and many unresolved issues around the regional and global
debate suggest that it is timely to broaden the perspectives with which
these issues are examined by adding to the dominant economic and strategy
lens organisational and social lenses. It is also timely to add
functional perspectives to the mix.
L ISSUE OVERVIEW
publish a special issue drawing together original papers addressing the
issue of whether firm strategies are global or regional, and their
potential impact on a broad range of organisational dilemmas. Building
upon the work of Rugman and Verbeke in JIBS (2004) and in Ghemawat
(2007), a regional strategy is defined as one confined to a region of the
broad triad of the EU, North America, or Asia. In contrast, a global
strategy operates across these three broad regions of the world.
At this time, the debate about global versus regional strategy can be
advanced by new theoretical and more careful empirical work. Theoretical
work needs to address the extent to which there are barriers to business
activity between triad regions (the so called liability of inter-regional
foreignness). Such an analysis should include both economic and social
traditions. At an empirical level, when are both country level and global
level activity replaced by regional activity, to what extent do country
level metrics for economic, political and cultural activity remain valid?
In particular, can the Kogut and Singh (1993) country level cultural
index be replaced by a regional one? Are there now regional HR strategies
(Tung and Verbeke, 2010)?
In particular, papers will be considered in the following areas:
We welcome empirically based papers from a broad range of scholarly
communities. Furthermore, we welcome submissions using a broad range of
methodological approaches as well as trans-disciplinary and
inter-disciplinary work. ICT applications in the public sector:
e-government, e-governance and m-government.
- The interaction between geographic and product diversification
- The liability of foreignness and the performance of multinational
firms across regional and/or global dimensions
- The nexus between firm specific advantages, performance and geography
- The nature of home and host country location specific advantages and
- Innovation in multinationals is it regional or global?
- The longitudinal nature of regional sales and assets and their impact
- The nature and performance of small “born global” firms are
they regional or global?
- Emerging economy multinationals and their regional or global
- The regional or global dimensions of inter-firm networks, strategic
alliances and international joint ventures
- The theoretical and empirical significance of the liability of
- The impact on firm strategy of regional trade and investment
- Regional head offices of multinationals
- The strategies, structures and performance of British multinationals
- Country level culture and regional level economic activity
- International human resource management strategies and
approaches polycentric versus regiocentric versus geocentric
Submissions should be uploaded to the British Journal of Management
ScholarOne Manuscripts site at
later than 1st April
Authors must ensure they adhere to the journal guidelines which are
available on the journal’s website:
. The outcome of first review
will be communicated to authors by 1 July 2012. The date for the
submission of papers selected for revise and re-submission will be 1
Levitt, T. (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business
Review, May/ June 1983, pp. 92 102.
Ghemawat, P. (2007). Redefining Global Strategy: Crossing Border in a
World Where Differences Still Matters. Harvard: Harvard Business
Rugman, A.M. (2000). The End of Globalization. London, UK: Random
House Business Books.
Rugman, A.M. (2005). The Regional Multinationals: MNEs and “Global”
Strategic Management. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Rugman, A.M. and Verbeke A. (2004). A Perspective on Regional and Global
Strategies of Multinational Enterprises, Journal of International
Business Studies, 35(1), pp. 3-18.
Rugman, A.M., Yip, G.S. and Jayaratne, S. (2008). A Note on Return on
Foreign Assets and Foreign Presence for UK Multinationals, British
Journal of Management 19(2), pp. 162-170.
Schlie, E. and Yip. G.S. (2000). Regional Follows Global: Strategy Mixes
in the World Automotive Industry, European Management Journal, 18,
pp. 343 205.
Tung, R.L. and Verbeke, A. (2010). Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving
the quality of cross-cultural research, Journal of International
Business Studies, 41(8), pp. 1259-1274.
Yip, G. S. (1995). Total Global Strategy: Managing for Worldwide
Competitive Advantage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Yip, George S. (2003) Total Global Strategy II: Updated for the
Internet and Service Era. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.