"'Strategies for Firm Globalization and Regionalization''
Edited by: Professor Alan M. Rugman (Henley Business School), 
Professor Abby Ghobadian (Henley Business School), Professor Rosalie 
L. Tung (Simon Fraser University)

BJM is pleased to announce a special issue focused on examining the 
globalisation and regionalization strategies of firms, a key debate 
in international business which touches on all disciplines of management.

Over the last decade, a debate has raged about the nature of business 
strategy following Levitt (1983). Many authors had assumed that with 
the growth of globalization, it is possible for firms to expand 
globally. Such international expansion yields economies of scale, a 
so-called integration strategy. A leading proponent of this approach 
is George Yip (1995, 2003) who proposes a "total global" strategy. In 
contrast, Rugman (2000, 2005) has demonstrated empirically that there 
are rigidities in both country level and firm level economic activity 
respectively. This work suggests that firms must be using regional 
strategies, not global ones, and that the regions are triad based. 
Schlie and Yip (2000) have argued that regional strategy is a step 
towards a global strategy. In a British context, the multinational 
strategies and performance of large British firms have been examined 
by Rugman, Yip and Jayaratne (2008). This stressed a strong home 
region focus upon Europe with 64 percent of sales of British firms in 
the EU. The way organisations develop internationally has 
implications not only for strategy but also for structure, 
organisational development, human resources (HR), institutional 
engagement, societal engagement, and political engagement.

The current economic crisis is forcing organisations to rethink their 
strategies and many unresolved issues around the regional and global 
debate suggest that it is timely to broaden the perspectives with 
which these issues are examined by adding to the dominant economic 
and strategy lens organisational and social lenses. It is also timely 
to add functional perspectives to the mix.

BJM will publish a special issue drawing together original papers 
addressing the issue of whether firm strategies are global or 
regional, and their potential impact on a broad range of 
organisational dilemmas. Building upon the work of Rugman and Verbeke 
in JIBS (2004) and in Ghemawat (2007), a regional strategy is defined 
as one confined to a region of the broad triad of the EU, North 
America, or Asia. In contrast, a global strategy operates across 
these three broad regions of the world.

At this time, the debate about global versus regional strategy can be 
advanced by new theoretical and more careful empirical work. 
Theoretical work needs to address the extent to which there are 
barriers to business activity between triad regions (the so called 
liability of inter-regional foreignness). Such an analysis should 
include both economic and social traditions. At an empirical level, 
when are both country level and global level activity replaced by 
regional activity, to what extent do country level metrics for 
economic, political and cultural activity remain valid? In 
particular, can the Kogut and Singh (1993) country level cultural 
index be replaced by a regional one? Are there now regional HR 
strategies (Tung and Verbeke, 2010)?

In particular, papers will be considered in the following areas:

    * The interaction between geographic and product diversification
    * The liability of foreignness and the performance of 
multinational firms across regional and/or global dimensions
    * The nexus between firm specific advantages, performance and geography
    * The nature of home and host country location specific 
advantages and firm performance
    * Innovation in multinationals  is it regional or global?
    * The longitudinal nature of regional sales and assets and their 
impact on performance
    * The nature and performance of small "born global" firms  are 
they regional or global?
    * Emerging economy multinationals and their regional or global strategies
    * The regional or global dimensions of inter-firm networks, 
strategic alliances and international joint ventures
    * The theoretical and empirical significance of the liability of 
inter-regional foreignness
    * The impact on firm strategy of regional trade and investment agreements
    * Regional head offices of multinationals
    * The strategies, structures and performance of British multinationals
    * Country level culture and regional level economic activity
    * International human resource management strategies and 
approaches  polycentric versus regiocentric versus geocentric
We welcome empirically based papers from a broad range of scholarly 
communities. Furthermore, we welcome submissions using a broad range 
of methodological approaches as well as trans-disciplinary and 
inter-disciplinary work. ICT applications in the public sector: 
e-government, e-governance and m-government.

Submissions should be uploaded to the British Journal of Management 
ScholarOne Manuscripts site at no 
later than 1st April 2012.
Authors must ensure they adhere to the journal guidelines which are 
available on the journal's website: . The outcome of first review 
will be communicated to authors by 1 July 2012. The date for the 
submission of papers selected for revise and re-submission will be 1 
October 2012
Levitt, T. (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business 
Review, May/ June 1983, pp. 92  102.
Ghemawat, P. (2007). Redefining Global Strategy: Crossing Border in a 
World Where Differences Still Matters. Harvard: Harvard Business School Press.
Rugman, A.M. (2000). The End of Globalization. London, UK: Random 
House Business Books.
Rugman, A.M. (2005). The Regional Multinationals: MNEs and "Global" 
Strategic Management. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Rugman, A.M. and Verbeke A. (2004). A Perspective on Regional and 
Global Strategies of Multinational Enterprises, Journal of 
International Business Studies, 35(1), pp. 3-18.
Rugman, A.M., Yip, G.S. and Jayaratne, S. (2008). A Note on Return on 
Foreign Assets and Foreign Presence for UK Multinationals, British 
Journal of Management 19(2), pp. 162-170.
Schlie, E. and Yip. G.S. (2000). Regional Follows Global: Strategy 
Mixes in the World Automotive Industry, European Management Journal, 
18, pp. 343  205.
Tung, R.L. and Verbeke, A. (2010). Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: 
Improving the quality of cross-cultural research, Journal of 
International Business Studies, 41(8), pp. 1259-1274.
Yip, G. S. (1995). Total Global Strategy: Managing for Worldwide 
Competitive Advantage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Yip, George S. (2003) Total Global Strategy II: Updated for the 
Internet and Service Era. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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