Running Head : Banner Ad
A Content Analysis of Internet Banner Advertising:
Focusing on Korean and U.S. Cultural Differences
School of Journalism and Mass Communication
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Mass Media Ph.D. Program
College of Communication Arts and Science
Michigan State University
* The order of authors was randomly determined
Contact Person : Hwi-Man Chung
700 Bolinwood Dr. APT # 12-B
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
email : [log in to unmask]
phone : 919-969-1507
Submitted to the Advertising Division
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication
in New Orleans, LA : August 4-7, 1999
Running Head : Banner Ad
A Content Analysis of Internet Banner Advertising:
Focusing on Korean and U.S. Cultural Differences
The Web is emerging as a new advertising medium vying strongly with the
media. Despite the Web's capability of becoming a potentially powerful medium,
there is little
empirical studies about the banner advertising in the Web. Previous studies
media have suggested that there are differences among different countries and
cultures in terms of
advertising types and degree of informativeness. This study focused on the
banner advertising and
findings suggest that there are differences between the two countries even in
advertisements in terms of advertising content, type, and informativeness.
The Internet has become a viable means of communication for people all over
the world in
only 7 years. The number of Internet users worldwide is estimated to be 100.5
million as of the
end of 1998, and by the end of the 2000, it is expected that the number will
jump to 200 million
(NUA 1998 at http://www.nua.ie/survey/ how_many_online/index.html).
And also, the Internet has doubled in size of hosts every year from 1995 to 1997
million hosts to 18 million hosts in the world. As this tremendous growth in
both numbers of
users and hosts continues, marketers and advertisers have tried to figure out
how to use the
Internet as a marketing and advertising tool. For this reason, much attention
has been focused on
the effects of Web advertising, particularly the persuasive techniques of
For companies who use the Internet as a secondary marketing tool and as a
substitute for direct
mail (Leong et al., 1998), marketers and advertisers have tried to find the most
effective ways of
inducing surfers to their home pages. As part of this effort, advertising
practitioners are trying
to find out how to increase the click-through rate of banner ads. Recommended
by the practitioners is to put a call-to-action messages such as "Click-Here",
arrows, or other
blatant messages in the banner ads (Harris 1997; Internet Advertising Bureau
Although many studies have suggested various techniques to
increase the effectiveness
of banner advertising, no study has investigated the usefulness of the
techniques in terms of
cultural differences. As a result, the applicability of banner ad techniques,
which have been
developed mainly by U.S. researchers, in different countries is unknown. Even
techniques recommended by many American advertising practitioners may be popular
in U.S. banner
ads because of their effectiveness of increasing "click-through" rates, their
usage may be limited
in Korean banner ads. For example, there are difficulties in translating one of
techniques, "Click-Here," into Korean words. Even after Korean banner
advertisers translate the
"Click-Here" into Korean, the meaning of the message may be ambiguous because
"Click" is a newly
conceptualized computer terminology for most Korean people. As a result, the
effectiveness of the
"Click-Here" message is questionable for Korean Internet users. In addition to
the issue of banner
techniques, the objectives of banner ads may be different across countries. For
marketers may focus on trial-focused advertising objectives rather than
objectives because Korean Internet users are generally young and innovative (See
As these examples illustrate, it is important for global marketers
cultural differences if they use the Internet as one of their marketing tools.
To address this
aspect of Internet advertising research, the present study specifically examines
in terms of the cultural differences between Korea and the U.S. Before
studying the effects of banner
advertising, one needs to know how banner ads are executed differently in the
Without empirical documentation of actual use of banner ads in these countries,
the value of
further studies on the effects of banner ads will be questionable.
Consequently, the purpose of
this study is to collect specific information about the use of banner ads by
using a content
analysis procedure of web sites in the two countries.
Literature Review for Theoretical Framework
Advertising on the Internet and Banner Ads
According to Ducoffe (1996), advertising on the Web can best serve
the needs of
consumers and yield the sort of responses that advertisers desire. Therefore,
the Web can
offer consumers a variety of benefits that may increase the value of its
1996). The most distinguishable benefits of Web advertising are as follows.
advertising can potentially offer consumers an advantage over traditional media
makes information immediately accessible at the right point when consumers need
advertising information. Second, the information in Web ads is more relevant to
consumers because consumers usually connect the Web sites that are expected to
information they want. Third, Web ads are flexible. They can be changed
easily in response to consumer needs and market changes. Finally, transactions
executed directly by consumers in response to ads, increasing both speed and
purchases or inquiries.
Berthon, Pitt, and Watson (1996) reviewed the role of the World
Wide Web as an
advertising and marketing communications medium. They concluded that the World
Web is "characterized by ease of entry, relatively low set-up costs, globalness,
independence, and interactivity" (p. 53) and can be effectively used for
for new or existing markets.
One of the major forms of Web advertising is banner ads (Hoffman,
& Chatterjee, 1995). Banner advertising is usually defined as "small graphic
images containing tempting information, inviting users to click for more
(Ellsworth & Ellsworth, 1997; p. 87). Therefore, unlike other forms of Internet
advertising such as target ads, Web sites, and Web sponsorships, banner ads are
primarily as Web traffic builders (Li, 1998). Because the main purpose of
banner ads is
to catch consumers' attention, click-through rate has become the gauge of banner
effectiveness, and it is assumed to be affected by banner ad content.
For this reason, many advertising practitioners have recommended
tools to increase click-through rates (See Table 2), and one of most recommended
techniques by practitioners is to put a call-to-action messages such as
arrows, or other blatant messages in the banner ads (Harris 1997; Internet
Bureau 1997). According to InfoSeek's (1997) study, a 44 percent increase in
rates can be realized simply by giving text cues that the banner is connected to
information. That is, by literally stating the words "Click Here," or putting
buttons, arrows or
other blatant call-to-action messages in the banner ad, the banner ad
dramatically improved (Harris, 1997).
Although these techniques have been found to be effective, they
may be effective
only for Western market. Even though a recent study found a 44 percent
click-through rates just from providing visual or textual cues that a banner
leads to more
information, this technique, especially a use of textual cues such as
"Click-Here," raises a
question about its standardized use in different countries. One
from the differences in languages. Each Asian country such as Korea, Japan, and
its own language, which is fundamentally different from English in terms of
syntax. As a result, the content technique of banner ads may be limited in its
these Asian markets.
For example, there is no Korean terminology exactly matching the
"click" in terms of computer vocabulary. Because the meaning of "click" has
with the development of computers in Western countries, it has to be either
Korean wording or directly used as a foreign phrase for Korean people. The
Korean wording of "click-here" takes too much space in a relatively small banner
which may limit other important banner ad messages. Furthermore, the meaning of
translated Korean "click-here" message may be awkward for Koreans. Because the
word "click" is still being assimilated in Korean, it is difficult for Korean
to use the "click-here" technique because of the language problems.
Behavioral Dimensions: Cultural Differences
The cultural difference of behavioral patterns also can influence
the effectiveness of
banner ad techniques recommended by Western researchers. It has been found that
the most important factor capable of differentiating the behavioral patterns of
the people of
one society from another (Hofstede, 1991). Hofstede (1980) defined culture as
interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influences a group's
response to its
environment." Therefore, Hofstede called the culture "the software of the
mind." Culture is
also social norms and values, which are learned and shared by the members of a
Culture influences members' behavior, their ways of thinking, their attitudes,
systems among people. Furthermore, culture regulates human behavior and
whether specific behaviors are acceptable or not. As a form of social
advertising is considered to be particularly reflective of culture (Hong et al.,
advertising should differ from country to country, culture to culture. A
consumer who is
exposed to a specific culture becomes committed to that culture's style of
feeling, value system, attitudes and perceptions (Hall, 1976).
Researchers have long tried to show that advertising is influenced
by culture and
reflects culture. Differences found in the level of informativeness are
supported by the cultural differences between eastern and western countries.
dentified context as one of the key features that distinguishes the
communication style of
one culture from another. He suggested two different levels of communication -
context communication and low-context communication. Hall (1976) defined a
context communication as "one in which most of the information is either in the
context or internalized in the person, while very little is in the coded,
part of the message. A low-context communication is defined as just the
the mass of the information is vested in the explicit code" (Hall 1976, p. 79;
Taylor et al., 1997, p. 3).
In a relatively high-context culture, such as Korea, messages
often are indirect,
and it is polite to be indirect and somewhat vague. Also, the meaning of a
more on the context, that is, who is speaking, what was said earlier.
Therefore, in a high-
context culture, people have little communication, its expression is indirect
and the receiver should understand the message using his/her prior knowledge.
contrary, low-context culture has direct and easily understood communications.
message is clear, explicit, and direct. Therefore, the receiver may totally
depend on the
sender's message to get information. Hall describes the United States and some
countries as low-context cultures, and South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan as
cultures. Therefore, it can be assumed that there will be differences of
western and eastern countries. That is, western countries will use more direct
messages than eastern countries do. For example, U.S. advertisers may use more
call-to-action messages in their banner ads, whereas Korean advertisers may
avoid the use
of direct messages that request immediate consumer actions. This is usually
referred to as a
"Call-to-Action." Consequently, Korean banner advertisers may be reluctant to
action-to-call messages in their banner ads. Considering both language and
differences, this paper suggests the following hypothesis.
H1: The frequency of usage of call-to-action messages in U.S. banner ads is
greater than that of Korean banner ads.
In addition, it is expected that global companies of the U.S. who
are marketing in
Korea may have difficulty in employing call-to-action messages. They may be
these cultural differences without any systematic research findings to rely on.
As a result,
there is a possibility of mixed usage of the "click-here" in their banner ads.
hypothesis is suggested.
H2: The frequency of usage of call-to-action messages in banner ads differs
significantly among Korean advertisers, U.S. advertisers, and U.S. global
advertisers in Korea.
After Resnik and Stern (1977) first started systematic
investigation of information
content by setting up the evaluative criteria for informativeness in
advertising, analysis of
the content of advertising information has been used in many cross-cultural
determine differences in information content. These studies have shown that the
content in advertising is different among cultures and countries (Cutler &
Dowling 1980; Hong et al., 1987; Kanso 1992; Kewon et al., 1992; Madden et al.,
Martenson 1987; Mueller 1987; Ramaprasad & Hasegawa 1992; Weinberger & Spotts
Zandpour et al., 1992; Zandpour et al., 1994).
This difference of information level depending on cultures may be
found in banner
advertising. Because banner advertising is one form of advertising, it can also
be used as a
strategy for creating communication effects such as awareness and attitudes.
Briggs and Hollis (1997), banner ads are found to increase effectively brand
without clicking activity. Also, Mbinteractive found that simple exposure to a
generated increases in advertisement awareness, brand awareness, and purchase
(MBinteractive, 1997 at http://www.mbinteractive.com/site/iab/exec.html). If
advertising is used as such a tool, there may be a variation in information
levels between U.S.
and Korean banner ads. As mentioned earlier, the cultural difference may
information level between the two countries' banner content. Specifically, U.S.
may contain more information than Korean banner ads. Many studies have
idea that low-context cultures such as the U.S. send more information in their
than high-context countries such as Korea do. The following hypothesis is
H3 : The U.S banner ads contain more information than Korean banner ads do.
One of the major problems of studying Web advertising is
establishing a 'sampling
procedure'. Especially when banner ads are used as the unit of analysis, it is
more difficult to
set the sampling frame to select banner ads randomly, because getting a sampling
carries all commercial web sites and banner ads is practically impossible.
problem related to the sampling process is that the purpose of this study is to
differences between two countries. Because of this purpose, there could be
variables if the sampling frame had different characteristics.
Therefore, the "top 10 advertising recipients" (See Table 3) in
both Korea and the
U.S. were used as the sampling frame. The reason for using "top 10 advertising
that first, it was easy to select the banner ads because many companies put
their banner ads in
those sites, and second, it was thought that those sites had more similar
other sites. After sampling frames were set for the two countries, a total of
123 samples from
Korea and 120 samples from the U.S. were gathered from February to March 1999
For a comparison of the "Call-to-Action Message" between the two
coding sheet was developed based on Harris's definition of "Call-to-Action
Appendix 1). Also, for the comparison of advertising informativeness between
countries, Resnik and Stern's (1977) information evaluation criteria (Table 4),
which has been
frequently employed as an advertising informativeness measure, were used. After
sheet was developed, each banner ad was coded by the authors. Both are doctoral
and have several years experience in advertising agencies. Before the data
training began with the conceptual sharing of various definitions between the
to the research variables (e.g., definition of banner ad and call-to-action
message, etc.) and
ended with a practice that entailed coding 20 banner ads from Web sites not
included in the
sample for the study. After the training and practice, the two coders worked
and analyzed half of the banner ads (either Korean banner ads or the U.S. banner
ads) in the
sample. After completing each coding work, they exchanged their work, and coded
banner ads that were done by the other judge.
When discrepancies occurred, each coder reconsidered the decisions made about
ad. If the procedure did not resolve the discrepancies, they discussed and
reached a final
For intercoder reliability, Holsti's reliability (Wimmer &
calculation for nominal data was used. Because this study focused on the
between two countries, and because this study used all nominal variables,
of nominal data was appropriate to this study. The coder reliability of each
ranged from .87 to .97 (i.e., .97 for action to call, .91 for purpose of ad,
.87 for information
Call-to-Action Message: Differences between the two countries
Table 5 shows the frequencies of "call-to-action" messages between
countries. As expected, American banner ads use more call-to-action messages
banner ads do; that is 18.9 % of Korean banner ads utilize the "call-to-action"
their banner ads, whereas 38.7 % of American banner ads utilized the
messages in their banner ads. According to chi-square analysis, this difference
significant ((2 = 41.679, d.f. = 1, p< .01). Therefore, hypothesis 1 is
Call-to-Action Message: Differences among advertisers
Table 6 shows the frequencies of "call-to-action" messages among
Korean, U.S., and
international advertisers. Over half (54.5%) of international advertisers
utilize the call-to-
action messages in their banner ads which are placed in Korean web sites. The
of chi-square statistics show that there are significant differences among
Korean, U.S., and
international advertisers ((2 = 44.905, d.f. = 2, p< .01). Hypothesis 2, which
says that there
will be differences in using the action-to-call messages among Korean, U.S., and
international advertisers, is also supported.
Types of Call-to-Action Messages in Korean Banner Ads
Table 7 shows the frequencies of types of call-to-action messages
in Korean banner
ads. As shown in the table, Korean (67.6 %) and international advertisers in
market (54.5 %) use the direct English copy for call-to-action messages in their
This result also implies that so far there is no appropriate Korean copy for
messages; therefore, advertisers use the English words directly in their banner
Information Cues: Differences Between The Two Countries
Table 8 shows the average number of information cues per banner
ad. As expected,
American banner ads (mean = .6471) have more information cues than Korean banner
(mean = .4472). Using a t-test analysis, the mean difference between the two
statistically significant ( t = -2.538, d.f. = 241, p< .05). Table 9 shows the
information cues contained in each country. The number of information cues in
ranged from 'zero' to 'three.' Out of 243 banner ads, 110 banner ads (45.3%)
have at least one
information cue, 11 banner ads (4.5%) have two information cues, and 2 banner
over three information cues. As the criterion of informativeness increased to
two cues in
Korean banner ads, only 1 out of 123 banner ads have two cues or more. In
banner ads, 7.5% have two or more cues. Chi-square statistics show that the
informativeness between the two countries is statistically significant ((2 =
8.439, d.f. = 3, p
<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 3 is also supported - "Korean banner ads are less
than U.S. banners ads are."
Table 10 shows the frequencies of the 14 information cues
appearing in the banner
ads by rank order. Seven different information cues appeared in banner ads.
(22.0% for Korean banner ads, 23.3% for American banner ads) were the single
frequently used information cue in both countries. In Korean banner ads,
and components had the same frequencies (both have 6.5%), followed by price
availability (2.4%). On the contrary, in American banner ads, performance
(11.7%) was the
second most frequently used information cue, followed by availability (5.8%),
(5.0%), price (3.3%), and components (2.5%). Although the percentage of each
cue and the rank order of information cues are different, there are similar
patterns of using
information cues in banner ads. That is, both countries used the special offer,
components, price, and availability as the five most often used information
cues, and other
cues, such as research, nutrition, package, etc., did not appear in both
countries' banner ads.
In this study, the size of banner ads (full-size banner, half-size
banner, button) and
type of creative (static, dynamic, animation) were also coded to see the
the two countries and to see whether the size can affect the usage of
and the degree of informativeness in banner ads. Table 11 shows the frequencies
size according to country. Surprisingly, Korean banner ads used half-size (234
x 64 pixel)
most often (54.5%), followed by full-size (from 468 x 60 pixel to 392 x 72
pixel, 36.6%) and
button size (from 125 x 125 pixel to 120 x 60 pixel, 8.9%). In contrast to
Korean banner ads,
the U.S. used only full-size banner ads (89.2 %). Chi-square analysis showed
difference of banner size between the two countries was statistically
significant ((2 = 73.927,
d.f. = 2, p< .01). Furthermore, there are statistically significant differences
in using creative
(static, dynamic, animation) between the two countries. Table 12 displays the
creative use between the two countries. Both countries are using dynamic banner
often; however, Korean banner ads utilize more dynamic ads than the U.S. ads do,
difference is statistically supported by chi-square analysis ((2 = 13.912, d.f.
= 3, p< .01).
Because the use of size and creative were different between the
two countries, there
is a possibility of size and creative effects over the use of call-to-action
messages and the
degree of informativeness. Therefore, chi-square analysis for each country
variables of size and creative was run again to find out whether the size and
were confounding variables for the difference of use of "call-to-action"
messages and the
degree of informativeness between the two countries. Findings show that both
and creative, do not work as confounding variables for the two countries at all.
First of all, in
Korea, the use of "call-to-action" messages in banner ads does not differ by the
creative of banner ads ((2 = 4.173 d.f.=2, p> .05 for the size, (2 = 3.693,
d.f.=2, p> .05 for
creative). Also, the degree of informativeness in banner ads does not differ by
the size of
banner ads ((2 = .895, d.f.=4, p> .05). However, the degree of informativeness
does differ by
creative of banner ads ((2 = 15.865, d.f. = 4, p< .01). This result implies
that even though the
degree of informativeness does differ by difference of creative and that more
ads have more information cues than do static banner ads, there are still
differences between Korea and the U.S. So, the type of creative does not work
confounding variable at all. In the U.S., the use of "call-to-action" messages
and the degree
of informativeness did not differ by the size and creative of banner ads ((2 =
p> .05 for size and the use of call-to-action message, (2 = .442, d.f.=2, p>
.05 for creative
and the use of call-to-action message, (2 = 1.895 d.f.=6, p> .05 for size and
the degree of
informativeness, (2 = 5.602 d.f.=6, p> .05 for creative and the degree of
An attempt was made in this study to find the differences between
advertising content of two different cultures, Korea and the U.S., in terms of
and informativeness. It was expected that banner advertising contents in terms
type and informativeness would be different across cultures, as was observed in
studies on traditional media. As shown in this study's findings, there were
significant differences in using "call-to-action" messages and in
Korean and American banner ads.
Although advertising practice does not always reflect a theory of
differences, one can see that there may be a potential relationship between
culture and the
practice of banner advertising. One of the interesting findings is that the
usage pattern of
banner ads by international advertisers in Korea have somewhat mixed patterns of
action messages in their banner ads. This implies that they may have trouble
whether they have to follow traditional tactics recommended by the U.S.
practitioners or they
have to use localized tactics for different cultures. Even though there has
been long standing
debate about which way advertising should go - standardization and localization
example, Cutler et al., 1992; Mueller, 1987), those studies are only for
advertisers who use traditional media. This exploratory study provides some
marketers and advertisers who use Internet advertising, especially banner
though this study cannot show which way is better for global advertising and
study confirms that global advertisers use localization strategy in Internet
As many studies on the information content of advertising from
have found that the degree of informativeness is different across cultures in
this study found that differences in the degree of informativeness in Internet
advertising as well. This study also found that the use of call-to-action
messages in banner
ads is different across different cultures. The main reason for the difference
could be the
cultural differences between the two countries as mentioned earlier in the
possible reason for the difference in degree of informativeness between the two
however, could be explained by the fact that the history of the Internet in
Korea is much
shorter than that of the U.S. Since the Internet was introduced to Korea much
later than to
the U.S., and the use of the Internet as a marketing and online communication
tool is not
widely spread yet in Korea, Korean advertisers are more likely to use the
Internet as a tool for
increasing their company image rather than as a tool for marketing.
Additionally, since the
concept of online marketing is not as well established in Korea as it is in the
advertisers are more likely to focus on only presenting their web sites in the
Internet to show
their image of being technologically advanced compared to their competitors. In
this case, it
is possible that banner advertising practices such as the degree of
informativeness and the
strategic use of call-to-action messages are influenced by such a factor.
Interesting findings are the differences in banner ad size and
creative strategy. Many
studies on the information content and creative strategy of advertising from
have not found a significant difference in ad size between the different
cultures. A possible
explanation for these findings is that even though we tried to set the sampling
similar characteristics, there were still some differences between the sampling
frames of the
two countries. Actually, in Korea, many national newspapers' web sites were
included in top
10 banner ads recipients. On the contrary, in the U.S., almost all search
included in the top 10 banner ads recipients. This difference could cause the
difference in ad
size between two countries. Because almost all web sites of Korean national
offer limited space for banner advertisements, they might limit the size for
banner ads in their web sites. Also, this study coded the banner ads into four
categories - static, dynamic, animation, and dynamic & animation. Surprisingly,
advertisers used more static banner ads than Korean advertisers. Table 9 shows
differences in type of banner ads between the two countries. Korean advertisers
dynamic banner ads than U.S. advertisers did; on the contrary, U.S. advertisers
animation in their banner ads than Korean advertisers did.
This study found that the contents of banner ads in terms of the
informativeness and use of call-to-action messages are different across
Therefore, marketers and advertisers should recognize the differences among
countries and cultures and should use their marketing communication messages
according to cultures and countries because those factors may significantly
change the effects
of the Internet advertising plan.
Suggestions for future studies
Several suggestions will help extend future research on Internet
First of all, appropriate criteria that can measure the degree of
informativeness of the Internet
advertising (i.e., banner ads, target ads etc.) are needed. We used the same
criteria that was
used to measure the differences among countries and cultures on traditional
Internet advertising is different in its type, format, characteristics, and even
users compared to
traditional media. So far, few studies have been done on Internet advertising.
explore the Internet advertising more fully and accurately, there should be new
Internet advertisements. Secondly, we used the top 10 advertising recipients
countries as the sampling frame for this study. However, further study needs to
use a more
refined sampling process when studying Internet advertising because of the
random sampling from the Internet. Future studies should explore the sampling
the Internet. Finally, future study needs to investigate a causal effect of
on usefulness of banner ads in the Internet. Because this study is
descriptive, the value of
this study will be added by future study about a causal effect.
Demographics of Internet Users in Korea and the U.S.
Less than High School
More Than College (Graduate)
* Source : GVU Internet User Survey (1998) for U.S.
KRNIC Internet User Survey (1998) for Korea.
Techniques Suggested by Banner Advertisers
Top of the Web pages
Put banners on the home page
Make banner bigger
Change creative frequently
Offer promotional stuffs
Use "action-to-call" messages
Keep the ad message close to the content of the page
Source : Harris (1997), Internet Advertising Bureau (1997), Li (1998)
Top 10 Advertising Recipients in Korean and U.S.
Infocop Search Engine
Naver Search Engine
Simmany Search Engine
Mochanni Search Engine
* Source : Korea - LG Ad Inc. 1999 (Korean top advertising
consist of almost all web site
of national newspapers)
U.S. - University of Texas at Austin (1999)
Resnik and Stern's Information Classification System
Information Cue Operational Definition
1. Price-Value ( What does the product cost? What is its
( What is the need-satisfaction
2. Quality ( What are the product's characteristics that distinguish it
from competing products based on an objective
of workmanship, engineering, durability, excellence of
materials, structural superiority of personnel, attention to
detail of special services?
3. Performance ( What does the product do, and how well does it do what it
is designed to do in comparison to alternative purchases?
4. Components or Contents ( What is the product composed of? What ingredients
( What ancillary items are included with the product?
5. Availability ( Where can the product be purchase?
( When will the product be available for purchase?
6. Special Offer ( What limited-time non-price deals are available with a
7. Taste ( Is evidence presented that the taste of a particular product
is perceived as superior in taste by a sample of potential
customers? (The opinion of the advertiser is inadequate)
8. Nutrition ( Are specific data given concerning the nutritional content
of a particular product, or is a direct specific comparison
made with other products?
9. Packaging of Shape ( What package is the product available in which makes it
more desirable than alternatives? What special shape is the
product available in?
10. Guarantees or ( What postpurchase assurances accompany the product?
11. Safety ( What safety features are available on a particular product
compared to alternative choices?
12. Independent Research ( Are results of research gathered by an "independent"
research firm presented?
13. Company-Sponsored ( Are date gathered by a company to compare its product
Research with a competitor's presented?
14. New Ideas ( Is a totally new concept introduced during the
( Are its advantage presented?
Resnik and Stern (1971), "An Analysis of Information Content in Television
Advertising," Journal of Marketing, (January), 50-53.
Differences in Action-to-Call Message Between Korea and the U.S.
chi-square = 41.679 d.f. = 1 p< .01
Difference in Action-to-Call Messages among Advertisers
International Advertisers in
chi-square = 44.905 d.f. = 2 p< .01
Types of "Call-to-Action" Messages in Korean banner ads
Average Number of Information Cues per Banner Ad (N=243)
- 2.538* (d.f.=241)
* p < .05.
Number of Information Cues
chi-square = 8.439 d.f. = 3 p< .05
Type of Information Cues Appeared in Banner Ads
Difference in Banner Ad Size Between Korea and U.S.
chi-square = 73.927 d.f. = 2 p< .01
Difference in Types of Banner Ads
Dynamic & Animation
chi-square = 13.912 d.f. = 3 p< .01
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Appendix 1. (1) Evaluation Form of Korean Banner Ads Content
Ad No :
Brand Name: ______________________________________________
1. Type of Banner ads
1) Only to induce into Home page (specify what was
2) To increase communication effects (i.e., category need, brand awareness, and
3) To facilitate promotion (specify what the promotion
2. Use of Action-to-Call Messages (e.g., "Click-Here")
1) Yes 2) No
3. If yes, what copy was used in the ad?
1) Korean meaning of 'Click-Here' category 2) Use of English 'Click-Here'
3) Korean sound of 'Click-Here' category 4) Others
4. Size of Ad
1) Full Banner (468x60 Pixel) 2) Half Banner (234x60 Pixel) 3) Button
1) Static 2) Dynamic 3) Animation 4) Dynamic + Animation
6. Information Cue
(# of cues)
Price or Value
Components or Contents
Packaging or Shape
Guarantees or Warranties
Company Sponsored Research