The Astounding Women of Analog Magazine: A Content Analysis of Cover Art
The Astounding Women of Analog:
A Content Analysis of Cover Art, 1930 - 1995.
Lisa M Daigle
Georgia State University
email: [log in to unmask]
Presented to the Magazine Division
AEJMC Annual Convention
Baltimore, August, 1998
This study is a content analysis of science fiction magazine cover art. It is
designed to find out if specific types of cover art, namely those with images of
women, exist and if certain images are reoccurring. It also seeks to find out if
certain female images have changed over time.
Its focus is on Analog magazine and its history of cover art from 1930 to 1995.
Table of Contents
I What is Science Fiction?
II Popularity Brings Importance
III The Art of the Cover Image
IV The Astounding Life-Span of Analog Magazine
VIII Appendix 1: Astounding Magazine's first Editorial (January, 1930)
IX Appendix 2: Graph I (Representation); Graph II (Body Representation)
X Appendix 3: Graph III (Dominance); Graph IV (Year)
XII Decade Representations of Cover Art
** Not for use without permission **
"Most publishers know that it is the cover that sells the magazine....."
D Marshal B. Tymn and Mike Ashley
Science Fiction, Fantasy and Weird Fiction Magazines, 1985.
Science fiction is an extremely popular genre in today's society. Movies, such
as Aliens 4: The Resurrection and Starship Troopers, draw consumers to the box
office. Bookstores have multiple racks set aside for only science fiction
novels. Television programs, such as the X-Files and Millennium, hold high
ratings. Publishing companies enjoy large profits from increasing book sales and
new magazines continue to surface. Science fiction, SF, is a growing and
pervasive genre. Yet within academic study, this genre has been largely ignored.
A magazine's cover is the first thing a person sees on the sales rack.
Therefore a magazine's cover must grab that potential reader's attention and
hold it long enough to engage the reader's interest. Images are chosen carefully
and are a integral part of a magazine's sale potential (Abrahamson, 1996, Gunn,
1988, Svilpis, 1983, Taft, 1988, Tymn & Ashley, 1985, Woseley, 1973). SF
magazine cover art is unique in its use of images. SF cover art, however popular
with its readers, has been largely dismissed in both magazine and content
This study is a content analysis of science fiction magazine cover art. It is
designed to find out if specific types of cover art, namely those with images of
women, exist and if certain images are reoccurring. It also seeks to find out if
certain female images have changed over time. Its focus is on Analog magazine,
its history of cover art from 1930 to 1995.
What Is Science Fiction?
Many critics dispute when SF actually started. Some credit Mary Shelly's
Frankenstein as the first work of science fiction, released in 1818, for it
"provides a pattern for asking questions about the new future, for expressing
hopes, fears, and speculations in fictional form" (Clute, 1995, p. 108). Others
cite Jules Verne as the founder of SF as a genre, for he published many works in
the 1860s (Clute, 1995, Gunn, 1975, Rottenstiener, 1975). Still others credit
"pulp magazines" as the official start of the SF genre, for a peak of interest
occurred in fans at pulp magazine's start in the late 1920s (Clute, 1995, Gunn,
1975, Rottenstiener, 1975, Sanders, 1994). Whichever year is considered SF's
beginning, science fiction has enjoyed popularity for decades. It is, as one
author states, "virtually a world-wide phenomenon" (Rottenstiener, 1975, p. 7).
There is even more discrepancy regarding the definition of science fiction than
its beginning. Numerous definitions exist of what constitutes "science fiction."
As one critic states, "trying to get two enthusiasts to agree on a definition of
SF leads to bloody knuckles" (Damon Knight, as cited in Rottenstiener, 1975).
Some definitions include:
y Science fiction is a branch of fantasy identifiable by the fact that it
eases the 'willing suspension of disbelief' on the part of its readers by
utilizing an atmosphere of scientific credibility for its imaginative
speculations in physical science, space, time, social science, and philosophy.
(Moskowitz, 1966, as cited in Rottenstiener, 1975)
y ...[it] presupposes a technology, or an effect of technology, or a
disturbance in the natural order, such as humanity, up to the time of writing,
has not in actual fact experienced. (Crispin, 1955, as cited in Rottenstiener,
y ....that class of prose narrative treating of a situation that could not
arise in the world we know, but which is hypothesized on the basis of some
innovation in science or technology, or pseudo-technology, whether human or
extra-terrestrial in origin. (Amis, 1960, as cited in Rottenstiener, 1975)
y Any story that argues the case for a changed world that has not yet come
into being. (Clute, 1995)
y ...a literary genre whose necessary and sufficient conditions are the
presence and interaction of estrangement and cognition, and whose main formal
device is an imaginative framework alternative to the author's empirical
environment, distinguished by the narrative dominance or hegemony of a
fictional 'novum' validated by cognitive logic. (Suvin, 1982)
y It is relatively easy...to demonstrate what science fiction is not. It
isn't...fiction about science;...it isn't a form of prophecy...above all,
science fiction is positively not fantasy. (Pohl, 1997)
y ..science fiction is the mythos of industrialized societies...those
narratives of a society which are used to explain to the members of that
society the nature of the universe, their roles in it, and what limits and
values the members are to respect. (Spinks, 1986)
There are also differing opinions on various divisions within the science
fiction genre; "hard" science fiction, for example, is thought to be different
than more traditional science fiction (Bridgstock, 1983). Hard science fiction
is based upon science, specifically scientific fact. One author suggests hard
science fiction is "mathematically demonstrable" (Clayton 1986). Despite the
differing opinions on what exactly science fiction is as a genre, its popularity
thrives. Its variety, and diversity, are a large part of its charm (Zgorzelski,
Popularity Brings Importance
As the popularity of the SF genre has grown in recent years, there have been
peaks and valleys in its notoriety. The 1950s saw a rise in fans, as did the
1980s (Gunn, 1988; Rottenstiener, 1975; Sanders, 1994). The "pulp" magazine
phenomenon began in 1926 with the publication of Amazing Stories magazine. It
was the first pulp magazine devoted entirely to science fiction. It lead the way
for scores of pulp magazines, which later met their demise after only a few
decades (Clute, 1995, Franklin 1982, Gunn, 1975, Peterson, 1956, Rottenstiener,
1975). Prior to Amazing Stories, a few pulp magazines, such as Argosy, included
SF stories. By 1939, fans of SF had formed their own organization, New Fandom,
which held the first SF convention (Peterson, 1956). Since then, the "fandom" of
SF has continued to grow. "The delirium continues and, if anything, is
intensified..." (Asimov, 1981, p. 244). This fandom's growth supports the
expansion of the SF field. SF magazines in particular encourage this fan
phenomenon (Trimble, as cited in Sanders, 1994).
Enthusiasts are responsible for most SF consumer purchases. Readers are the key
to any magazine's success. (Wolseley, 1973). In order to remain popular and
profitable, magazines have moved to targeting audiences. Specialized magazines,
which target specific audiences, have seen significant growth since 1965
(Abrahamson, 1996, van Zuilen, 1977).
SF magazines today have "displayed tremendous growth in recent years." (Taft,
1982, p. 194). For example, Analog, founded in 1930, sells approximately 60,000
copies monthly. Galileo, founded in 1979, "is similar" in respect to copies
sold. (Taft, 1982) Fantasy & Science Fiction has been published for over 30
years. (Taft, 1982, pp. 194-196).
The study of magazines is seen as unique because magazines are not published as
often as newspapers, and they reflect changing tastes and interests of different
groups within society (Worthington, as cited in Abrahamson, 1995). Magazine
research that studies the effects of advertisements are popular, although not as
numerous as one might think; for example, over a 20-year period, only six
percent of Journalism Quarterly's published articles were centered on magazine
research (Popovich, as cited in Abrahamson, 1995). Numerous studies have been
conducted on the representation of women in advertisements found within
magazines. Yet there are more topics that could be covered with regard to
The study of science fiction in particular will benefit academic research.
Science fiction itself has been said to be significant in that it predicts
social and technological change and brings important issues to light (Miles,
1993). "SF is important both as a popular phenomenon and as an intellectual
concern" (Theall, 1980, p. 247). Whereas literary criticism of SF has grown,
academic research has not grown as quickly (Angenot & Suvin, 1979, Jameson,
1982). Journals such as Science-Fiction Studies are devoted to the study of
science fiction, yet they have largely concentrated on literary criticism of SF
novels, feminist studies of the representation of women within the fiction, and
utopian discussions regarding SF and its future predictions (Borgmeier, 1990).
Criticism is extending towards SF magazine content (Philmus, 1984). However,
much more work is left to be done within this field.
The importance of SF as a genre crosses over many different fields of study. SF
is being used by other fields, especially business. For example, Laurie Kahn,
senior vice-president of Young & Rubicam advertising agency states:
The public has become so sophisticated about science fiction,...that we can now
incorporate it into our marketing strategy, and translate SF concepts into
commercial messages which everybody understands. As an advertising tool,
science fiction has become a shared experience. (Swires, as cited in
Due to its fandom, its popularity, and its pervasive stance in society, SF is a
genre worth studying (Lowentrout, 1987).
The Art of the Cover Image
Magazine images, especially advertisements, have been adequately researched
(Jones, 1995). Studies have researched not only what types of images are used,
but also what effects these images may have on readers (Baumgartner et al,
1997), consumer behavior (Stern, 1996), women (Russ, 1980, Stern, 1993), and
gender (Barthel, 1988, Darley & Smith, 1995, Simpson et al, 1996). Other studies
have assessed media exposure (Finn, 1997), and the psychology of advertising and
emotional response (Richins, 1997). Most studies agree that images in
advertisements are effective attention-getters, and that images are effective in
grabbing the consumer's response (Swan, 1955).
A number of gender difference studies have addressed the motivation behind the
consumer. Darley and Smith (1997) found that males and females interpret images
differently. Males are selective information processors, who tend to use
heuristics processing and miss subtle cues; females are comprehensive
information processors who consider both subjective and objective product
attributes and respond to subtle cues. Darley and Smith's study measured
consumers, divided by gender, and lends credence to the idea that science
fiction consumers may interpret the cover images they see differently, and they
may also respond to those covers differently.
Seduction is a key element in images that grab attention (Deithyon & Grayson,
1995). Seduction, or the idea that sex sells, is a common theme in marketing,
and some researchers even state that marketing depends "quite pervasively" on
seduction (Kapferer, 1985, as cited in Deighton & Grayson, 1995). This seduction
grabs the consumer's attention.
One such area that has not been adequately explored is SF magazine cover art.
Within the arena of science fiction, its artwork enjoys a large popularity and
following. Fans collect artwork, which has created a popular field within
itself. A few important studies have been conducted. J. E. Svilpis conducted a
semiotic analysis of a few SF magazine covers. However, it was largely devoted
to a Freudian interpretation of the inanimate images represented (1983). Another
study conducted an analysis of women represented in Planet Comics, but did not
focus solely on image (Larew, 1997); still another study focused on the image of
women on SF magazine covers, but only looked at the image of the female alien
(Roberts, 1987). This study also was more concerned with interior images and
textual content than strictly cover art.
Although Robin Roberts' (1987) study was not primarily concerned with cover
art, it provides an integral piece to this analysis. Roberts claimed that the
portrayal of women as aliens, both as literal horrifying characters and as
figurative alternate beings, provided women readers with a powerful "legacy."
She states that the pulp magazines that used these depictions gave female
readers of the era (1950s) an idea of power and strength. Roberts argues that
these alien portrayals caused women to enter the realm of SF as writers, thus
leaving a "legacy" to future feminists.
Science fiction covers are integral to the popularity and sale of the magazine.
"While most magazines can rely simply on the photo of a pretty girl on the
cover,....the SF magazine has to achieve much more. Not only must it indicate
the contents of the magazine by its cover, but its cover must also present to a
potential reader an image of something that does not exist in the world as we
know it" (Tymn & Ashley, 1985, preface). The image a SF magazine places on its
cover not only speaks of the magazine, but also the opinion the magazine has of
its readers and what it believes will sell the magazine (Gunn, 1988). "The SF
painting is unique among other forms of commercial illustration in that it is
not often subject to stylistic trends or linked to specific historical periods
that would tend to date it" ( p. 231).
The SF magazine image is complex, fantastical, and detailed. Images are
integral to the magazine, and significant entities themselves. Yet these images
have been virtually ignored in research. For example, one scholar notes:
When critics compile lists of 'definitions of science fiction,' they invariably
consider only verbal definitions;...while pictorial representations can never
match the clarity and subtlety of verbal definitions, they still can be
regarded as a potentially valid alternative approach to the problem of
definition and might be usefully examined both for information about the
attitudes towards science fiction of the people who created and used them and
as possible influences on the attitudes of those people who regularly saw them
The types of SF images found on magazine covers are numerous. However, they do
follow certain themes (Frewin, 1975). They represent stories found within the
magazine's pages. They also reflect social attitudes and perceptions of women
during specific eras (Larew, 1997). Some images have been criticized as only
reflecting "women as seen by men" (Lefanu, 1988, p. 14). One study states that
SF "has a long-standing and well-developed tradition of powerful female aliens"
represented through cover art, and that since most SF was written by men, "the
genre reflected the larger culture's treatment of woman as alien" (Roberts,
1987, p. 34). A larger analysis of the specific types of images magazines have
used would benefit academic research. This study does not seek to establish any
negative affects these utilized images may or may not have on consumers, nor
does it propose that certain images directly cause greater sales. The focus is
on the images of women as an entity themselves. Many have studied the effects of
magazine covers, but adequate studies have not been accomplished regarding SF
The Astounding Life-span of Analog Magazine
Analog has been a popular magazine since 1930. Not many magazines can boast
a 60 year life-span, especially not in the science fiction field. A 60 year
life-span makes Analog one of the longest running science fiction magazines in
Analog magazine first began as Astounding Stories of Super-Science in 1930. It
became simply Astounding Stories in 1931. In 1938, editor John W Campbell, Jr.
changed its name to Astounding Science Fiction and then to Analog Science
Fiction D Science Fact in 1960. Despite these changes in name, Analog retained
popularity among its fans.
The first editor, Harry Bates, is credited with starting 1930 off "right."
Bates promised his readers stories that "will not only be strictly accurate in
their science but will be vividly, dramatically and thrillingly told." The
magazine enjoyed popularity, even though pulp magazines were looked upon as
"trash" by most:
The word pulp refers to the cheap quality of the paper used in old magazines,
although to many it also connotes the sensational nature of the material
therein. One thinks of cheap romance stories or gossip publications when one
hears pulp, not literature. But science fiction is definitely literature, and
many of America's greatest writers were published in the pulps.
Astounding was different than other magazines of its day, in that it published
both science fiction stories and discussions of real scientific facts. Readers
were encouraged to write in, and ongoing discussions were published monthly in
the back section entitled, "Brass Tacks."
In the middle of 1932, "economic hardships" forced Astounding to publish
bi-monthly instead of monthly. After the March, 1933 issue, the magazine
folded temporarily. It came back immediately, in the fall of 1933, with a new
editor, F. Orlin Tremaine and a new publisher, Street & Smith. The magazine
promised "our purpose is to bring to you each month one story carrying a new and
unexplored 'thought variant' in the field of scientific fiction." Between
1935 and 1937, Astounding published popular authors such as John Taine, John
Campbell writing as Don A. Stuart, H. P. Lovecraft, and Eric Fank Russell.
In 1937, author John Wood Campbell, Jr. took over as editor. He introduced
readers to authors such as Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein, and Raymond F. Jones.
He also published work by established writers like Eric Frank Russell, Ray
Bradbury, L. Ron Hubbard, and his own work under the pen-name Don Stuart.
Campbell brought both the magazine and the science fiction genre credibility and
fame. In the SF field, Campbell is called "SF's most influential editor." As
Jack Williamson said upon Campbell's death in 1971, "...Campbell is the third
major name in its [science fiction's] history. In the whole domain of science
fiction, we are all his debtors." Campbell opened Astounding magazine to
include stories which could "devote much more attention to the sociology and
psychology of the future (or past) than to its technological or scientific
To this day, Analog is successful. It's long-standing history is worthy of
This study intends to find themes and use of gender by looking at Analog
magazine. By studying its history (from 1930 - 1995), a module for a larger
study that could be applied to more science fiction magazines will hopefully
This study is designed to analyze Analog magazine's use of cover art. It seeks
to establish if Analog magazine used women in its cover art, what themes or
types of women (human and/or alien, for example) it used, and during which times
of its life-span it used females. Some questions to be considered are:
1. Are certain images of women used more frequently than others? If women are
used, are they placed in "seductive" positions?
2. In the last three decades, as targeting audiences became increasingly more
important to magazine sales, have the cover images changed? Have they increased
or decreased their use of women?
3. In recent years, has there been a shift to androgyny in the cover art? Or,
are their covers predominantly the same as decades ago?
To answer these questions, the cover art will be categorized and analyzed as
First, magazine covers from Analog magazine are to be collected. Each monthly
cover, from 1930 to 1995, will be collected for analysis, which is to include at
least 12 covers per year. After the cover images are collected, they will be
categorized into the groups listed below. The purpose here is to find what
images were used and what images of women are most common. The covers will first
be divided into those with women and those without. For the purpose of this
study, those covers without females will not be considered. Also, "alien" refers
to any creature that is not human, including monsters, robots, animals, or other
The cover images with women will first be divided as:
1. Covers with images of women exclusively.
2. Covers with women and men.
3. Covers that depict female aliens.
4. Covers with aliens and women.
5. Covers with both humans (male and female) and aliens.
Covers with women will then be broken into sub-categories by body
1. Full view (entire body is shown).
2. Face only.
3. Body only, no face.
4. Half-view (the upper torso).
These covers will also be designated as "seductive," taking into consideration
clothing, or lack thereof, body position, and body representation.
Finally, the covers will be sub-divided into the representation of dominance:
1. Women and men, equally represented on the cover (similar size).
2. Women that are dominated by men.
3. Women that are dominated by an alien, monster or animal.
4. Women that are dominating a man or men.
5. Women that are dominating an alien or aliens.
Dominance here refers to the subject being controlled by another or controlling
This will lend information in respect to common themes found within the images.
As the cover images are divided into categories, the years in which they appear
will be listed by groups. This is to find out if images of women are used during
peaks or valleys of popularity. Lester Del Rey's divisions, from his book The
World of Science Fiction, 1926 - 1976, will be used. He divided SF into the
1. "The Age of Wonder" 1926 - 1937
2. "The Golden Age" 1938 - 1949
3. "The Age of Acceptance" 1950 - 1961
4. "The Age of Rebellion" 1962 - 1973
5. "The Fifth Age" 1974 - 1980
To bridge the gap between 1985 and 1995, two other categories must be added.
Therefore, the researcher has named:
6. "The Next Age" 1981 - 1989
7. "The Future Age" 1990 - present (stopping at 1995)
This phase seeks to find if more images of women are used during high or low
points in SF popularity. Also, it seeks to find if there was a significant
change in cover art after 1965, when SF magazines began targeting their
Between 1930 and 1995, Analog published approximately 800 issues. Out of
this 800, approximately 80 used women on their covers. Meaning, roughly 10%
of Analog's covers depicted women.
Table 1: Representation of Women in Analog's Cover Art
Women and men
Women and aliens
Men, women, and aliens
Table 1 shows the largest groups were portrayals of men and women (30);
exclusively women (17); and men, women, and aliens (12). (See also Appendix 2).
Table 2 shows that most of the representations of women were full body views.
(This full body view means that the entire form of the woman was shown.)
Interesting to note, there were only three covers that depicted a discernible
female alien (one in 1941, one in 1989, and one in 1993).
Only 24 were considered "seductive," meaning that the women presented were
either scantily clad, or were posing seductively. Those posing seductively
included those arching their backs, bending forward, or similar "sexy"
positions. Most of the women portrayed were fully clothed and their entire body
is shown (See also Appendix 2). There were only two covers that portrayed a
woman's naked body; one in which the body is shadowed almost entirely and can
hardly be seen (May, 1939) and another that depicts a sketch of a naked female
body as part of a spaceship (August, 1970). Also interesting to note, although
not quantified, there was an increase of naked men in the late 1940s (See
December 1947 and February 1948 for examples). One cover, February 1955, even
depicted men dressed in women's clothing.
Table 2: Representation of Women's Bodies
The prevalent theme in the earlier decades, was that of "rescue." The women
were shown as being rescued by men from either a threat of war, of an alien, or
an explosion. Usually, the men were saving the women from aliens. As Table 3
shows, there were no images in which women were dominating men or saving men
from any threat (See also Appendix 3). Women were predominantly being held back
by men or being held captive by aliens. Table 3 also shows that the women were
frequently equal in representation to men, with similar sized depictions.
Interesting to note, only three covers depicted women dominating aliens. These
did not occur until 1968, and were usually images of women riding on the backs
of either animals or alien-animals.
Table 3: Representations of Women's Relative Dominance
Equal to Men
Dominated by Men
Dominated by Alien
In later years, women are depicted as strong, or at least stronger than they
were in the 1930s through the 1950s. The 1950s saw an increase in younger
characters, including children, and also characters depicting more emotion. Also
these covers had more incidents of close-up facial images. Towards the end of
the 1960s, although women still needed to be rescued occasionally, they were
more predominantly featured as powerful characters, standing alone. The 1970s
brought them weapons. The 1980s brought them uniforms and portrayals of
leadership. The 1990s have brought even more women to the covers of Analog.
Already, eight have been depicted in the first half of this decade. They are
predominantly strong, although they are more scantily clad than their sisters in
the 1960s and 1970s. They are as seductive as their sisters in the 1930s and
1940s (See also Appendix 3). The seductive woman image is evenly dispersed
throughout the decades, as well as are women dispersed throughout each decade,
as Table 4 shows.
Table 4: Representations of Women by Year
1926 - 1937
1938 - 1949
1950 - 1961
1962 - 1973
1974 - 1980
1981 - 1989
1990 - 1995
The most surprising finding of this study was the lack of women in Analog's
cover art. Science fiction has a reputation of portraying women in its art.
However, Analog seems to only scatter women over its covers at various times,
almost equally throughout its life-span. No singular month nor time of year was
targeted. It does not seem as though they put more women on the covers when
sales are down, nor when sales are up; on the contrary, they seem to use women
for only one readily apparent reason: they represent a story within the
The women are at times portrayed in the usual themes: as the victim or the
scared female in need of rescue. However, there are stronger images as well,
such as the soldier and the leader. There was only one image of a mother
(February, 1969). There was no one common image that was repeated, nor was one
image used more often than another. The only predominant common theme was that
of the women being held, either by a man or an alien, and this was more
prevalent in the earlier decades.
Also surprising was the low number of "seductive" women. The bias of the
researcher should be taken into account here, for what is "seductive" to one may
or may not be seductive to another. However, only a mere 24 out of 80 covers had
women with partial clothing or posed with an arching back. Comparing that number
to the popular belief that science fiction always portrays its women as sexy is
As targeting audiences became more important, Analog did not increase its use
of women. It has in the 1990s, however, and it remains to be seen if it will
continue to increase its use of women in its cover art. The cover images did
change as targeting increased: they became brighter in color, and included more
fantastical images of other worlds, futuristic spaceships, and planets. However,
it cannot be surmised whether this was due to targeting alone or to better print
technology and/or artists.
There has not been a significant shift towards androgyny in its covers. Within
the older covers, it was hard to discern whether the aliens depicted were male
or female, and it continues to be hard to tell the aliens' gender in today's
cover art. The cover art did represent women in their current view by society;
meaning, for example, that covers of the 1950s showed images of women with 1950s
hairstyles and clothing, as did all the other decades. A specific study just of
these representations, that appear on first glance to be accurate to real-life
portraits of the image(s) that was popular in specific decades, should be
conducted, for it promises interesting results.
This small study leads to more questions. For example, is Analog an accurate
representation of other science fiction magazines? A comparison of other
magazines should be conducted in the future, to see if Analog is an anomaly or a
standard in the field. There are limitations in studying only one magazine.
However, studying Analog makes for a remarkable look at one magazine's
life-span. A larger study should delve into its story content, images within the
pages of the magazine, and its advertisements. A more in-depth study of the
magazine may lend greater information as to what the cause of its incredible
success is and has been. One thing is certain, Analog remains one of the most
successful magazines of the genre.
In respect to this study, the results speak for themselves. At first glance, it
seems as though Analog has a respect for women that other publications of the
genre do not. A larger study of the magazine, combined with this information
about the cover art could lead to a greater understanding of the magazine
itself, and to a larger understanding of this popular genre.
Appendix 1: From Ackerman's World of Science Fiction, page 125.
Astounding's first editorial, January 1930
What are "astounding" stories?
Well, if you lived in Europe in 1490, and some-
one told you the earth was round and moved around the sun
D that would have been an "astounding" story.
Or if you lived in 1840, and were told that some
day men a thousand miles apart would be able to talk to each
other through a little wire D or without any wires D that
would have been another.
Or if, in 1900, they predicted ocean-crossing air-
planes and submarines, world-girdling Zeppelins, sixty-story
buildings, radio, metal that can be made to resist gravity and
gloat in the air D those would have been other "astounding"
To-day time has gone by, and all these things
are commonplace. That is the only real difference between
the astounding and the commonplace D Time.
To-morrow, more astounding things are going to
happen. Your children D or their children D are going to take
a trip to the moon. They will be able to render themselves
invisible D a problem that has already been partly solved. They
will be able to disintegrate their bodies in New York and re-
integrate them in China D and in a matter of seconds.
Astounding? Indeed, yes.
Impossible? Well D television would have been
impossible, almost unthinkable, ten years ago.
Now you will see the kind of magazine that it
is our pleasure to offer you beginning with this, the first number
of ASTOUNDING STORIES.
It is a magazine whose stories will anticipate
the super-scientific achievements of To-morrow D whose stories
will not only be strictly accurate in their science but will be
vividly, dramatically and thrillingly told.
Already we have secured stories by some of the
finest writers of fantasy in the world D men such as Ray Cum-
mings, Murray Leinster, Captain S. P Meek, Harl Vincent,
R. F. Starzl and Victor Rousseau.
So D order your next month's copy of ASTOUND-
ING STORIES in advance! DThe Editor.
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 For the purpose of this study, if a magazine called itself science fiction,
it was considered as such.
 This 60-year popularity is why Analog was chosen as the focus of this
 These three articles sparked the interest in this study.
 Robin Roberts. A New Species: Gender & Science in Science Fiction. "Chapter
2: The Female Alien: Pulp Science Fiction's Legacy to Feminists." University of
Illinois Press: 1993. pp. 40 - 65.
 Lester Del Rey. The World of Science Fiction, 1926 - 1976. Garland: New
 Forrest J. Ackerman. The World of Science Fiction. 1997. p. 125.
 See Appendix One for a copy of the first editorial, January 1930, by Bates.
 Ackerman, p. 107.
 See any issue of Astounding, 1930 - 1940, for an example of this ongoing
 Ackerman, p. 127.
 Brooks Landon. Science Fiction After 1900: From Steam Man to the Stars.
1997. p. 55.
 Ackerman, p. 130.
 Landon, p. 56.
 A pilot study conducted of Analog did suggest the magazine used women in
its cover art.
 A category of "other" may be added if necessary. Also, if other categories
become evident during the categorization process, they will be added and noted
in the Discussion section of this paper.
 Lester Del Rey is highly respected in the field of Science Fiction
studies, therefore his divisions of decades are used.
 Usually, Analog published 12 issues per year; however, "bonus" issues were
sometimes released, such as the mid-December bonus issues.
 This number does not include the few covers in which very tiny (no larger
than .5mm), shadowy women were used in the backgrounds.
 Also included in the last Appendix, aside from all the covers of women,
are the first issue in which the word "Analog" appeared on the cover (Feb. 1960)
and examples of other cover art for reference.