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Subject: AEJ 96 LeeC CTM Support for censorship of sexually explicit content: Korea
From: Elliott Parker <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To:AEJMC Conference Papers <[log in to unmask]>
Date:Mon, 23 Dec 1996 06:11:47 EST
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          Third-Person Perception and
          Support for Censorship of Sexually Explicit Visual Content:
          A Korean Case
 
 
          Changhyun Lee*
          Korean Broadcasting Institute
 
          and
 
          Seungchan Yang**
          University of Wisconsin-Madison
 
          Address correspondence to:
 
          USA: Seungchan Yang
          Mass Communication Research Center
          5050 Vilas Communication Hall
          School of Journalism and Mass Communication
          University of Wisconsin-Madison
          Madison, WI 53705
          (608) 263-3381/263-7669
          E-mail:[log in to unmask]
          ------
          KOREA: Changhyun Lee
          Korean Broadcasting Institute
          700, Seocho-Dong, Seocho-Gu
          Seoul, Korea
          (2) 580-3830/580-3833
          E-mail:[log in to unmask]
                    [log in to unmask]
 
 
          * Changhyun Lee(Ph.D., Seoul National University,1993) is a senior
researcher at Korean Broadcasting Institute, Seoul, Korea. Currently he is in
the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison as an honorary research fellow. His interest is in the uses
and effects of broadcasting.
 
          ** Seungchan Yang(M.A. University of Pennsylvania, 1990) is a doctoral
candidate in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University
of Wisconsin-Madison. His research interest is primarily on the media's role in
political communication.
 
          Paper submitted to the Communication Theory and Methodology Division,
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, 79th Convention,
Anaheim L.A., August, 1996
 
 
 
          ABSTRACT
 
 
 
           This study examined the third-person perception hypothesis in a
unique Korean cultural setting focusing on sexually explicit television program.
The results provide support for both the third person perception and its effect
on the attitude toward censorship.  This study additionally attempted to
distinguish 'others' according to gender difference, and 'medium' according to
audience characteristic.  The results did not show a significant perceptual gap
in the case of the same-gender others.  For the regulation in cable-television,
third person consideration was reduced compared to support for regulation in
network television.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          Third-Person Perception and
 
           Support for Censorship of Sexually Explicit Visual Content:
 
          A Korean Case
 
        I. Introduction
               It is now fair to say that political censorship of the mass
media's journalistic performance has been substantially eliminated from Korean
society since the nation's recent democratization process beginning in 1987.
Nonetheless, there are still areas that remain under strict government
regulation and censorship. These are sex and violence in mass media content. The
Korean Broadcasting Commission (KBC), a major body of the Korean government,
continues to regulate sexual and violent content by "reviewing" broadcast
programs dealing with these subjects. Similar to cases in Western countries,
worries about the potentially harmful influence of media content has been the
major factor leading government officials to maintain a pro-censorship position
toward sexual and violent broadcast programs (e.g., Korean Broadcasting
Commission, 1995). What about the public's reaction to censoring sexual and
violent visual materials?  Although a recent survey showed that the majority of
the general public oppose governmental intervention in broadcasting (Korean
Broadcasting Institute, 1994), to date, there has been no serious public outcry
attempting to abolish censorship of sex and violence in television, unlike the
case of political censorship. For Korean government officials it appears that
the Korean public is generally concerned about the potential harmful societal
influence of these materials.
                In relation to this censorship phenomenon, one major communication
research area that has drawn particular attention involves Davison's (1983)
third-person effect. As many researchers have summarized neatly (e.g., Gunther,
1995; Mutz, 1994; Perloff, 1993) the third-person effect hypothesis suggests
that people generally have a tendency to estimate that a mediated communication
will have more effect on others than on themselves. Further, it suggests the
possibility that this perceptual bias may influence people's attitudes and
behaviors. Recently, researchers have focused specifically on this second part
of the third-person hypothesis, and attempts have been made to examine the
linkage between third-person perceptions and censorship attitudes (Gunther,
1995; Rojas, Shah and Faber, 1995).  Findings generally suggest that the
individuals' general tendency to overestimate the media effect on others is an
important factor in understanding one's pro-censorship attitude.        The general
purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the third-person
perception and pro-censorship attitudes toward sexually explicit visual content
in the context of Korean society. In particular, this study aims at furthering
third-person effect research by incorporating the notion of "distant others"
while differentiating the "third-persons" according to gender. Also, it examines
how the linkage between third-person perception and pro-censorship attitudes may
vary according to the characteristics of different visual media through which
sexual content is delivered.
 
          II. Literature Review and Hypotheses
 
          1. The regulation of sexual content in Korean broadcasting
                The Broadcast Act of Korea enacted in November, 1987, empowers the
Korean Broadcasting Commission (KBC) to take measures to promote the public
interest and to heighten the quality of program content broadcast in Korea.
Koreans may agree that the KBC has done a fair job in terms of protecting the
general public interest; however, it is true that this institution has actually
conducted censorship of all broadcast programs, not only entertainment programs,
but also current news programs.  The KBC itself appears to believe that
censorship is rather a strong word for the Korean public, and prefers the term,
"Shim-ui (reviewing)" in the process of regulating the content of broadcasting.
                In the KBC's code for program review, sections 15 through 17, section
20 and section 49 provide the rationale for regulating sexual content. Under
these sections, the regulation of sexual content is justified for the following
reasons: 1) to protect children and adolescents (section 15); 2) to protect
family values (section 16); 3) to protect social norms and ethics (section 17);
4) to protect the general audience (section 20), and 5) to protect sexual norms
(section 49). As we can see from these rather vague phrases, the underlying
assumptions behind these reasons are 1) that the audience is generally
vulnerable to mass media content, and 2) that government institutions perceive
potential negative social consequences in mass media materials.
                Although the term "sexually explicit" has sometimes been used as
equivalent to pornography in the U.S. (Harris, 1994), this term is used somewhat
differently in Korea. Since Korean society does not allow any forms of
pornography, the phrase "sexually explicit" is rather used broadly to cover
simple nudity, obscene and indecent sexual content. However, the term is applied
to pornography and sexual intercourse in the media when regulating foreign
broadcasting programs, Korean society's conservative attitude toward the subject
of sex appears to give the term broader usage (Kim, 1994).
                In general, since the Korean society has a cultural heritage of
patriarchy and male centered norms and ethics, censorship in Korea is applied
more frequently for the protecting the female and youth than just male(Kim,
1994). Although most sexual crimes are predominantly committed by males, in the
process of regulating broadcasting for sexually explicit content, the major
reason for censorship is the protection of socially harmful behaviors of
children1), and housewives2)
                In addition, comparing with other subject matters, it has been
pointed out that the KBC's regulation is centered on sexually explicit content
rather than violent content, the violation of constitutional values, social
norms and ethics (Kang and Lee, 1990). Because this trend continues, Korean
producers have recently questioned why the KBC censorship criteria are more
severe for sexual content than for violent content in the television drama and
entertainment(KyungHyang Newspapers, Feb., 18, 1995).  Along with the
deregulation of import of foreign cultural products, the massive influx of
western culture has brought changes in Korean society, in particular, changes
moving toward more sexual openness (Kim, 1994).  Nevertheless, traditional
censorship criteria concerning sex in broadcasting regulations remain unchanged.
In social discussion regarding censorship, even the progressive newspaper's
editorials3) have supported the traditional broadcasting regulations for sexual
content (Hangyore Newspaper, Oct.,3,1995).
 
          2. The third-person effect
 
          1) Examination of the perceptual gap
                Since Davison (1983) proposed the third-person effect hypothesis,
numerous studies have examined the individual's perceptual bias of judging a
greater media effect on others than on self. This perceptual part of the
third-person hypothesis has been tested using various mass media content, such
as defamatory news stories (Cohen, Mutz, Price, and Gunther, 1989; Gunther,
1991), negative political advertisements (Cohen and Davis, 1991), pornography
(Gunther, 1995), product advertisements (Gunther and Thorson, 1992), mini-series
dramas (Lasorsa, 1992), news stories about controversial issues (Mutz, 1989;
Perloff, 1989), and other forms of political communication in an election
(Rucinski and Salmon, 1990). As many reviewers of the third-person effect
research have indicated, the first component of the third-person effect has been
supported by many robust findings (Gunther, 1995; Mutz, 1994; Perloff, 1993).
                Some studies have tested the third-person effect hypothesis in the
Korean context. Using a news story about the Kwangju protest, Kim, Ahn, and Song
(1991) found a third-person perceptual gap among college students in Korea.
Also, Park (1990) reported observing the third-person effect concerning a
political violence news story during the 1988 Korean presidential election
campaign. As Perloff (1993) indicated, it was expected that the perceptual part
of the third-person effect would be also found in the context of Korea. In
particular, using sexually explicit visual messages (containing either
mild-nudity or sexual violence), a prediction was made:
                   Hypothesis 1
                People will perceive sexually explicit visual messages to       have a
greater negative effect on others than on themselves.
 
                In examining the conditions of the third-person effect, several
researchers have suggested that social distance from others can be an important
factor facilitating the magnitude of the gap between perceived communication
effects on others and the self (Cohen et al., 1988; Cohen and Davis, 1991).
Cohen et al. (1988) and Cohen and Davis (1991) found that the strength of the
third-person effect increased with distance. The previous third-person effect
studies in Korea also applied this social distance notion ; Kim et al. (1991)
and Park (1990) both reported that people's perceptual gap increased as "others"
moved from their own community to those from other communities.
                As Perloff (1993) noted, the social distance notion can be
distinguished by two views. One is based on the notion of similarity that social
distance falls along a continuum going from "just like me" to "not at all like
me". The other is that social distance is represented by a continuum that goes
from "my closest group" to "my largest group" (Perloff, 1993, p.175-176). While
most previous studies focused on the second view of social distance (Perloff,
1993), the present study rather adopted the first view as differentiating
others. In particular, this study was an attempt to argue that "gender
difference" is the important factor when individuals categorize others in
response to sexually explicit visual content.
                Perceived similarity and familiarity between genders has been
explored mostly in children and youth socialization studies using social
distance scales (e.g., Bonney, 1954; Singleton and Asher, 1977; Tyne and Geary,
1980). These studies suggested that the social distance of same-gender peers is
closer than that of opposite-gender peers. In the case of Asian youth in
particular, Brewer, Ho, Lee and Miller (1987) examined the perceived similarity
to self and others, and found that gender was the primary categorization for
distinguishing others. For instance, Hong Kong school children rated same-gender
others as more similar than those of the opposite gender (Brewer et al., 1987).
Although we did not directly measure social distance in this study, we assumed
that individuals judge same-gender others as closer to themselves than
opposite-gender others. Particularly in the case of perceiving the communication
effects of sexually explicit visual content, the gender difference was believed
to be a significant criterion in determining social distance from others, since
the consumption of such content (e.g., pornography) is usually shared with same
gender peers. Particularly in Korean society, since most people have been
socialized under the formal education system in which classes and schools are
separated according to student gender, this socialization environment appears to
permit Korean people to share common experiences more with same-gender peers
(Educational council of Pusan,1996). We believed that people tend to judge that
same-gender others' reactions to sexually explicit materials are similar to
their own. Hence, we predicted:
 
               Hypothesis 2
               The magnitude of the gap between perceived first- and third-
               person effects will be greater when others are of the
                opposite gender than when others are of the same gender.
 
          2) Linking the third-person effect with attitudes and behaviors
                Although it is true that the phenomenon of the third-person
perception around various contexts is worth examining, the more interesting and
important part may be the second component of the third-person hypothesis, since
it implies changes in attitudes and behaviors because of this perceptual bias.
Mutz (1994) and Perloff (1993) both suggested further research efforts to link
this third-person effect phenomenon with other concepts. However, to date, not
many studies have attempted to examine the second component of the third-person
hypothesis. Mutz (1989) attempted to link the third-person effect and the spiral
of silence based on the assumption of the "hostile media phenomenon"(Vallon,
Ross, and Lepper, 1985; Kressel, 1987). Her study on a divestment issue on the
Stanford campus suggested the possibility that people's biased perceptions about
the media effect on self and others can be connected to public expression
behavior. She found that third-person perception decreased the likelihood that
people would express their opinions publicly in the case of a very public
measure, such as willingness to sign a petition.
                Since previous studies suggested that third-person perceptions could
be manifested more for negative mediated messages (e.g., Gunther and Mundy,
1993; Gunther and Thorson, 1992), in relation to the second component of the
hypothesis, perhaps the most suitable research area is that of media regulation
or censorship. Rucinski and Salmon (1990) studied the relationship between the
third-person perception and pro-regulation attitude toward media content during
election campaign periods. Yet third-person perception did not play a role in
predicting support for external control of media content in their study. More
recently, studies on censorship attitudes have
          produced more positive evidence that third-person perception may work
in determining one's attitude toward censorship. Gunther (1995) found
significant relationship between third-person perception and a pro-censorship
attitude toward pornography, even after controlling for sets of variables
potentially related to censorship attitudes, such as gender, attitude toward
free expression, and exposure to pornography. Also, a significant positive
relationship with censorship attitude was also reported by Rojas, Shah, and
Faber(1995) in the study on pornography and violence on television. In this
study it was expected that this positive relationship would be found in the case
of sexually explicit visual content in Korean program. Following the suggestion
of these previous studies, we predicted :
 
               Hypothesis 3
               The magnitude of the gap between perceived first- and third-
               person effects will be positively related to pro-censorship
                attitudes toward sexually explicit visual content.
                Further, this study was an attempt to include the notion of media
characteristics in linking the third-person perception and pro-censorship
attitudes. As the discussion of Trauth and Huffman (1985), policy makers have
generally attempted to distinguish three kinds of media ; over-the-air
television, cable television and film. They (1985) pointed out the necessity of
using different standards in regulating different media based on each medium's
intended/actual audience and manner of distribution. It appears that this
position has been accepted in Korean society as well, and Korean public
officials have applied rather loosened standards in reviewing programs for cable
television and video release. For instance, since the recent launching of cable
television in 1995, the Korean Cable Commission (KCC), which is independent from
the Korean Broadcasting Commission, has performed the censorship role,
particularly for cable programming, with loosened standards. Behind policy
makers' holding multiple standards for regulation is, of course, the logic that
the intended audiences of cable can or will manage the potentially harmful
influence of mediated content.
                In relation to censorship attitude, this study assumed that the
characteristics of mass media are an important factor for people to maintain
multiple attitudes toward censoring different types of media. In other words, it
was posited that Koreans are able to have certain socialized media schemas when
considering their own positions on censoring visual materials, and thus have
different standards, just like policy makers. If this assumption holds, one can
expect that the major reason for the Koreans to support censorship of more
personal-choice and target-specific media is not just to protect others, but to
protect themselves, who may or will be the potential consumers. Hence, it was
expected that the relationship between the third-person perception and
pro-censorship is weakened as the medium of sexually explicit content moves from
one that is more open to the public to one that is more target-specific. Here,
we predicted:
 
                Hypothesis 4
               The perceptual gap between perceived first- and third-
               person effects on sexually explicit visual content will be
               more highly related to pro-censorship attitudes toward
               network broadcasting than to those toward cable television.
 
 
          III. Methods
 
          1. Sample
                In order to test the third-person effect hypothesis in the Korean
context, this study adopted a self-administered survey method after presenting
two stimuli video materials. Since the study design required showing sexually
explicit video clips to respondents, the sample was drawn from two universities
and two high schools located in Seoul, Korea. In particular, the sample was
chosen both from introductory-level social science courses in two universities
and from four classes in two high schools. The survey was conducted from July
3rd through 7th in 1995. The sample size was 389, almost evenly proportional
with respect to gender. None of the respondents in our sample were familiar with
the third-person effect hypothesis.
 
          2. Procedure
              A videotape was constructed in order to contain sexually explicit
visual scenes. All the content-regulated materials in 1994 from the archives of
the KBC were first reviewed, then among them, we chose programs that had
received post-warnings because of sexual explicitness. From these, two visual
clips4)  were edited to one minute lengths each at the video laboratory of the
Korean Broadcasting Institute (KBI). Between these two materials, we included
several television programs, such as news, documentary, talk shows, comedy, and
music videos in order to isolate the influence of these two materials. The two
visual clips could be distinguished such that one depicted sexual violence and
the other portrayed sexual intercourse with mild nudity. Since high school
students were included in the sample, we selected only scenes which had already
aired on network television and had received post-warnings from the KBC.
                In this study, two sets of questionnaires were used for the
survey. .  Before showing the prepared visual clips, we administered the first
questionnaire, which included general media use items, demographics, and several
questions potentially related to the attitudes toward censorship such as
attitude toward free express, attitude toward sexual openness, and exposure of
X-rated content.  Then, the respondents were instructed to carefully watch a
total of 11 segments of video clips and to answer the second questionnaire items
right after each segment of content ended. The second questionnaire dealt mostly
with the evaluation of each content. The questions measuring the third-person
effect and support for censorship were presented only after showing the two
sexually explicit visual clips.
 
          3. Measurement
                Respondents were asked to indicate separately whether the media
content shown in the video clip would have an effect on self and other people in
terms of moral value. Yet since one of the purposes of the study was to
distinguish self from 'others' according to gender differences, we asked the
respondents to judge separately the media effect on other people of the same
gender and those of the opposite gender. We used the same five point scale used
by Gunther (1995), with one representing "large positive effect" and five
representing "large negative effect."  In order to establish an individual's
perceptual gap, respondents' scores on the first person effect items (effect on
self) were subtracted from their scores on its corresponding third-person effect
items.
                Support for restrictions on sexually explicit visual content was
measured with three items. The Likert-type scale was used to assess the degree
to which respondents supported the ideas that "visual content should be
regulated" on network television and cable television. This study included three
items that potentially linked to support for censorship. These were general
attitude toward freedom of expression, previous exposure to pornography, and
attitude toward sexual openness in Korean society.
 
 
          IV. Results
 
          1. The perceptual gap between self and others
                Hypothesis 1 proposed that people will perceive sexually explicit
materials to have a greater negative effect on others than on themselves.  The
results of paired t-tests indicating partial support for this hypothesis are
shown Table 1. For both cases (mild-nudity vs. sexual violence), the perceptual
difference between self (M =3.32; M = 3.26 respectively) and others of the
opposite gender was significant (M = 3.66, p<.01; M = 3.62, p<.01). However, our
data for the overall sample did not show a clear third-person perceptual gap
between self and others with the same gender. A significant difference was found
only within a female sub-sample. For both mild-nudity and sexual violence
contexts, females tended to perceive same-gender others (M = 3.45, p<.01; M =
3.37, p<.06) to be more influenced than themselves (M = 3.38; M = 3.32).
                             -------------------------
                             Insert Table 1 about here
                             -------------------------
                Hypothesis 2 predicted that the magnitude of third-person perceptions
will increase as others move from the same gender to the opposite gender. Since
we did not find a significant perceptual gap in the case of the same-gender
others, we can say that our data generally supported this difference. Even for
the female sub-sample, which did produce a significant gap between self and
same-gender others, the opposite gender others demonstrated the larger
perceptual difference (M = 3.87, p<.01) from self.
 
          2. Third-person perception and attitude
                Hypothesis 3 proposed a positive relationship between the
third-person perception and support for restriction of sexually
          explicit visual materials. Tables 2-1, 2-2 showed zero-order
correlations, and a multiple regression analysis testing this hypothesis.
However since we did not find any significant perceptual bias in the case of the
same-gender others, we used only the perceptual bias with the opposite gender
others in the analysis.
                        -------------------------------
                        Insert Table 2-1,2-2 about here
                        -------------------------------
                For both the mild-nudity and sexually violent cases, the data
indicated that the third-person perception with opposite gender others was
significantly correlated with the two supportive attitudes (network television
vs. cable television) toward censorship at the zero-order level. The regression
analysis produced similar strong support for hypothesis 3. After controlling
various potential factors influencing one's support for the restriction of
sexually explicit materials, the magnitude of perceptual bias was still
significantly related to two pro-censorship attitudes.
                Hypothesis 4 predicted that third-person perceptions would be more
highly related to pro-censorship attitudes toward
          network broadcasting than to those toward cable television. As shown
in Tables 2-1 and 2-2, regardless of the type of sexual scenes, we found that
the influence of the third-person perception was weaker for predicting support
of restrictions on these sexual materials in cable television (_ = .19, p<.01
[mild-nudity]; _ = .13, p<.01 [sexual violence]) than for predicting support of
restrictions in network television (_ = .25, p<.01 [mild-nudity]; _ = .22, p<.01
[sexual violence]).
 
 
          V. Discussion
                This study examined the third-person effect hypothesis in a unique
Korean cultural setting focusing on sexually explicit visual content. The
results of this study generally provide support for both the perceptual and the
attitudinal parts of the third-person effect hypothesis in the Korean context.
On the average, respondents' perceived effect of sexually explicit visual
content on opposite-gender others was significantly greater than their perceived
effect on themselves. Also, this perceptual bias was significantly related to
support for censorship after controlling other important variables.
                This study attempted to make several contributions to the research on
third-person effects besides testing the effect outside the U.S.  First, it
distinguished others according to gender difference while considering the social
distance notion. Our analysis indicated that gender may be an important factor
when examining the third-person perception of mediated sexual content. Males did
not show any differences in terms of perceived media effect of sexual content
between themselves and others of the same gender. Only females tended to
overestimate the negative effect on same-gender others. Hence, this gender
criterion in differentiating "others" mainly applied to the female sub-sample.
        Although this study could not directly address the question of why only females
perceived a greater effect on the same-gender others, several reasons may be
suggested. First, it appears that Korean males believe that same-gender others
are immune to this kind of sexual material. Recent survey of high school and
middle school students in Korea indicated that male students are more exposed to
sexual materials (both visual and printed) than are females, and their
experience of exposure to this content is generally shared with peer classmates.
Considering the fact that co-ed schools are rare in Korean society, male
students' shared experience may influence them to judge that same-gender others
will not be different in reacting to media sexual materials. Second, we
conjecture that ego enhancement or self-esteem may vary between males and
females. As previous research suggests (e.g., Gunther and Mundy, 1993), the
"optimistic bias" has been considered as one potential reason for the
third-person perception. Previous research also suggests people's motivation to
reinforce their self-esteem by seeing themselves as smarter or better than their
peers has been regarded as the explanation for this bias.
                While investigating the link between the third-person perception and
pro-censorship attitudes, another goal of this study was to consider the
characteristics of the medium by which sexual content will be delivered. The
results of the analysis in this study not only add additional evidence for the
attitudinal part of the third-person effect, but also indicate that the link
between the third-person perception and support for censorship may vary
according to which medium they consider for regulation. For supporting the
regulation of sexually explicit content in cable television, which is more
personal choice and target specific, third-person consideration is reduced
compared to the case of regulating network television. Previous research on the
third-person effect and censorship appeared to focus on one's content specific
pro-censorship attitude, such as supporting censorship of pornography (e.g.,
Gunther, 1995) and violence (Rojas et al., 1995). The present study suggests the
need to distinguish one's pro-censorship attitude from the specific medium which
conveys the content in question. The criteria is  whether the medium is open to
the general public or restricted to a specific audience.
                In addition, the present study provided a chance to compare results
with those of Gunther's (1995) study. Although we found a significant link
between the third-person perceptual bias and a pro-censorship attitude, the most
important factor for predicting one's pro-censorship attitude was the
individual's perceived effect on self. This finding is consistent with
Gunther's. However, our analysis of sub-sample respondents who had the
third-person perception did not produce similar results. For Korean students,
the perceived effect on self was the most important predictor of support for
censorship, even for third-person perceivers, and unlike Gunther's result, the
effect of perceptual bias did not increase for this sub-sample (see Appendix 2
and 3). It appears that Confucian social culture, which emphasizes the harmful
effect of obscene materials on individuals' moral values in early socialization
stages, is related to this tendency.
                However, caution should be used in interpreting our results. There
are several limitations on the generalization of this study's findings.
Foremost, the non-random nature of our purposive sample should be considered. In
fact, it appears that our student respondents tended to sample "others" from
their immediate environment when they responded to sets of third-person
questions. Hence, our findings regarding gender difference should not be
interpreted as conclusive for the general Korean public. Besides, we did not
consider the question order effect in the present study. Although previous
studies consistently reported that the third-person effect is not an artifact of
question ordering (e.g. Gunther, 1995; Price and Tewksbury, 1994; Tiedge et al.,
1991), it is believed that randomizing the order of the comparison of
third-person groups will strengthen the findings.
                The results of this study suggest that future third-person effect
research using sexual content should consider the gender factor in
differentiating "others." As Perloff (1993) indicated, it will be necessary to
measure directly social distance from same-gender others and from
opposite-gender others in future studies. It is believed that future research on
censorship attitudes in the context of third-person analysis will produce more
interesting findings if we take a medium-specific approach rather than a content
specific one.
 
 
 
 
 
          Notes
 
 
 
 
 
          1) e.g., KBS-2TV, 1994. 10. 23. 21:00-21:55, in KBC 1995
 
          2) e.g., 1992.10.31. in KCC 1994
 
          3) Although homosexuality has been introduced in Korean Society as an
alternative sexual behavior recently, it is dangerous to broadcast homosexual
stories in primetime television dramas (Hangyore Newspaper, 1995. 10.3.).
 
          4) Content characteristic of the Video clip
          video clip 1
                <mild nudity>
                Program Title   : The Earth of the Human
                Channel         : KBS(Korean Broadcasting System)-2TV
                Date                    : 1994.10.12,13
                Time                    : 21:50-22:45
                Degree of censorship : Warning
                Content         : explicit nude scene in a long shot and                                  implicit
sexual intercourse in close up                            shots with sounds
 
          video clip 2
                <sexual violence>
                Program Title   : Mini Series(WangShipRi)
                Channel         : KBS(Korean Broadcasting System)-2TV
                Date                    : 1994.1. 1,5
                Time                    : 21:50-22:50
                Degree of censorship : Admonition
                Content         : explicit rape scene in long shots and
                                       close up shots with sounds
 
 
                *See picture in Appendix 3.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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          A. T-test Result : Perceptual Component of the Third-Person
                             Effect
 
 
            Table 1. Mean estimates of effect of each content on self and others
 
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Content               Self    Others  Doff. t-value   Others  Doff.
t-value
                                          Same Gender             Opt.Gender
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Mild-       All     3.32     3.35   .03    1.48      3.66    .34
9.91**
 
            Nudity      Female  3.38     3.45   .07    2.59**    3.87    .49
10.42**
                        Male    3.26     3.26   .00     .00      3.45    .19
4.03**
 
                        High S. 3.41     3.45   .04    1.05      3.77    .36
6.46**
                        Univ.   3.23     3.26   .03    1.06      3.56    .33
7.74**
 
 
            Sexual      All     3.26     3.27   .01     .33      3.62    .36
9.35**
 
            Violence    Female  3.32     3.37   .05    1.93#     3.81    .49
9.54**
                        Male    3.20     3.16  -.04   -1.16      3.44    .24
4.14**
 
                        High S. 3.30     3.28  -.02    -.41      3.74    .44
6.85**
                        Univ.   3.22     3.25   .03    1.13      3.51    .29
6.51**
 
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Note: Items are coded so that 1= large positive effect, 2 = small
positive effect, 3= no effect at all, 4=small negative effect, and 5= large
negative effect. Significant levels were calculated using paired t-tests.
 
            N : All = 389, Female = 195, Male = 194
 
            **p < .01,  *p < .05,  #p  < .10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          B. Regression Analysis : Attitudinal Component of the Third-
                                   Person Effect
 
            Table 2-1: Mild-nudity
 
            Factors predicting supportive attitude toward censoring sexual
content in two different media
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Censor in TV                      Censor in Cable
 
                                        r        B    R2 Change            r      B        R2 Change
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Gender                -.23** -.07    .05**           -.30** -.14**
.09**
 
            Age                    .03    .10*   .00              .05    .09*
.00
 
            Attitude Toward
            Free Express          -.38** -.11*   .07**           -.48** -.20**
.11**
 
            Attitude Toward
            Sexual openness       -.26** -.07    .02**           -.28** -.04
.01*
 
            Exposure to
            X-Rated Content       -.30** -.13*   .02**           -.34** -.12*
.02**
 
            Perceived Effect on
            Self                   .41**  .41**  .11**            .43**  .41**
.12**
 
            Perceptual Bias
            Opposite Gender        .21**  .25*   .05**            .18**  .19**
.03**
 
 
            Total R2                             .32**
.38**
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
            N=389
 
            Note: Betas are final standardized betas after all variables have
been entered and correlations are zero-order correlations.
 
            **p < .01,  *p < .05,  #p < .10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Table 2-2: Sexual violence
 
 
            Factors predicting supportive attitude toward censoring sexual
content in two different media
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Censor in TV                    Censor in Cable
 
                                        r       B       R2 Change               r       B       R2 Change
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Gender                -.17** -.05    .03**           -.25** -.11*
.06**
 
            Age                    .01    .12*   .00             -.02    .09#
.00
 
            Attitude Toward
            Free Express          -.35** -.12*   .07**           -.45** -.21**
.11**
 
            Attitude Toward
            Sexual openness       -.24** -.06    .02**           -.30** -.09#
.02**
 
            Exposure to
            X-Rated Content       -.26** -.10#   .01*            -.32** -.12*
.02*
 
            Perceived Effect on
            Self                   .37**  .38**  .10**            .35**  .32**
.07**
 
            Perceptual Bias
            Opposite Gender        .19**  .22**  .04**            .16**  .13**
.01**
 
 
            Total R2                             .27**
.30**
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
            N=389
 
            Note: Betas are final standardized beats after all variables have
been entered and correlations are zero-order correlations.
 
            **p < .01,  *p < .05,  #p < .10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Appendix-1  Descriptive Statistics for the Variables
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
            variables                                   Min  Max                                Mean (SD)
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Pro-Censorship Attitudes
 
            <Network Television>
                video clip 1                    1       5                               3.42    (1.12)
                video clip 2                    1       5                               3.11    (1.21)
 
            <Cable Television>
                video clip 1                    1       5                               2.76    (1.20)
                video clip 2                            1       5                       2.61    (1.17)
 
            Third-person Perception
 
            <media effect on self>
                video clip 1                    1       5                               3.32    ( .72)
                video clip 2                    1       5                               3.26    ( .69)
 
            <media effect on same-gender others>
                video clip 1                    1       5                               3.36    ( .76)
                video clip 2                    1       5                               3.27    ( .75)
 
            <media effect on opposite-gender others>
                video clip 1                    1       5                               2.44    (1.28)
                video clip 2                    1       5                               3.63    ( .92)
 
            <magnitude of perceptual gap between self and same-gender others>
                video clip 1                            -3      2                       .34     ( .68)
                video clip 2                            -4      2                               .37     ( .77)
 
            <magnitude of perceptual gap between self and opposite-gender
others>
                video clip 1                            -2      3                               .04     ( .48)
                video clip 2                            -2      2                       .01     ( .46)
 
            Control Variables
                age                                     15    30                            19.47       (3.51)
                gender                          0       1                             .49       ( .50)
                attitude toward freedom of express
                                                        1       5                            2.77       (1.22)
                attitude toward sexual openness in society
                                                        1       5                            3.07       (1.12)
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                video clip 1: mild nudity, video clip 2: sexual violence
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Appendix-2: Mild-nudity(Results of the Third-Person Subsample)
 
            Factors predicting supportive attitude toward censoring sexual
content in two different media
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Censor in TV                      Censor in Cable               variable
                                                r        B    R2 Change            r      B        R2 Change
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Gender                -.18*  -.12    .03*            -.28** -.17*
.08**
 
            Age                    .18*   .30**  .04**            .12    .15#
.03*
 
            Attitude Toward
            Free Express          -.10    .05    .00             -.33** -.27**
.09**
 
            Attitude Toward
            Sexual openness       -.09   -.09    .00             -.16#  -.05
.00
 
            Exposure to
            X-Rated Content       -.20*  -.12    .01             -.33** -.24**
.05**
 
            Perceived Effect on
            Self                   .29**  .32**  .08**            .30**  .24**
.05**
 
            Perceptual Bias
            Opposite Gender        .04    .17*   .02*            -.02    .04
.00
 
 
            Total R2                             .45**
.55**
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
            N=149
 
            Note: Betas are final standardized betas after all variables have
been entered and correlations are zero-order correlations.
 
            **p < .01,  *p < .05,  #p < .10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Appendix-3: Sexual violence(Results of the Third-Person Subsample)
 
            Factors predicting supportive attitude toward censoring sexual
content in two different media
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Censor in TV                    Censor in Cable         variable
                                        r       B       R2 Change               r       B       R2 Change
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Gender                -.20** -.17**  .04*            -.28** -.15#
.08**
 
            Age                    .15#   .23**  .04**           -.04    .11
.01
 
            Attitude Toward
            Free Express          -.20*  -.09    .02#            -.33** -.20*
.07**
 
            Attitude Toward
            Sexual openness       -.11   -.03    .00             -.25** -.07
.01
 
            Exposure to
            X-Rated Content       -.13   -.03    .00             -.30** -.16#
.02#
 
            Perceived Effect on
            Self                   .23**  .23**  .04*             .19*   .14#
.01
 
            Perceptual Bias
            Opposite Gender        .10    .15#   .02#             .09    .08
.00
 
 
            Total R2                             .40**
.46**
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
            N=155
 
            Note: Betas are final standardized betas after all variables have
been entered and correlations are zero-order correlations.
 
            **p < .01,  *p < .05,  #p < .10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Appendix-4: The major scene of the video clip 1 and video clip 2
 
 
            video clip 1                                video clip 2

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