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Subject: AEJ 96 EatonB CTM Prime time stereotyping on the new television networks
From: Elliott Parker <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To:AEJMC Conference Papers <[log in to unmask]>
Date:Mon, 23 Dec 1996 05:02:20 EST
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            Prime Time Stereotyping on
            the New Television Networks
 
 
            B. Carol Eaton
            Syracuse University
            743 Maryland Avenue
            Syracuse, New York   13210
            [log in to unmask]
            (315) 423-2965
             Abstract
                This content analysis examines gender portrayals in a sample of
prime time promotional announcements broadcast on five television networks (ABC,
NBC, CBS, Fox and UPN) during one week in 1995.  Findings supported the
hypothesis that stereotypical portrayals of women varied due to the television
network's target audience.  Specifically, television programs on networks that
appeal to a younger male audience contained more stereotypical female characters
than other network programming produced for a more general audience.
 
             Prime Time Stereotyping on the New Television Networks
                Television portrayals of women have been the focus of both popular
and social scientific inquiry for decades.  A great deal of social science
research has been generated to examine the issue of female stereotyping in prime
time network television programs and advertising.  This research has typically
described a male-dominated world with females delegated to stereotypical, minor
roles.  Although portrayals of women on the three traditional commercial
broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) may have become less stereotypical over
the past decade, with shows like Murphy Brown and Designing Women, the launch of
three new television networks in this decade has complicated the issue.
                These new networks must compete with the established networks for
viewers and advertising dollars.  In order to accomplish this formidable task,
the Fox, United Paramount, and Warner Brothers networks developed a competitive
start-up strategy to target younger viewers than the three veteran networks, and
are specifically interested in a young male audience (Coe, 1995).
                This content analysis examines stereotypical portrayals of women in
prime time television programs on each of these networks, testing the following
hypotheses:
            1.  On all networks, female characters will not appear as
                 frequently as male characters.
            2.  Television programs on networks that target a younger
                 male audience will contain more stereotypical female characters
than
                 other network programming produced for a more general audience.
            Theory
            Uses and Gratifications Theory
                Commercial television networks sell advertising time based upon the
size of their viewing audiences.  The revenues or advertising dollars generated
for each program, therefore, depend on the program's viewing audience size as
reported by A. C. Nielsen ratings data.  Networks try to maximize audience share
in the desired target market in order to increase advertising revenues.  Prior
to this decade, the three traditional commercial television networks dominated
the market and generally broadcast programs designed to appeal to a large, broad
audience.
                When the Fox, Paramount, and Warner Brothers television networks
launched during this decade, they faced the difficult task of competing with
these firmly established, traditional networks.  The fledgling networks adopted
a marketing strategy to broadcast programs targeted at a narrow audience
segment, specifically a much younger, male audience than the traditional
networks.
                Uses and gratifications theory explains why network programmers
target certain shows to specific audiences.  Under this theoretical approach,
researchers study the sources (both psychological and social) of audience
members' needs which influence their expectations toward media (and alternative,
competing sources), which result in various levels of exposure (or other
activities) that cause the gratification of needs or some other (possibly
unintended) consequence (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974, p. 20).  In
describing the uses and gratifications approach, Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch
specify the following five assumptions:
            1.  Audience members are described as active, demonstrating
                 goal directed behavior toward the media;
 
            2.  Audience members link media choices with perceived
                 gratifications;
 
            3.  Audience members choose between many sources, including
                 the media, to satisfy their needs;
 
            4.  Audience members can explain their motives for using
                 media sources at particular times; and
 
            5.  Value judgments pertaining to various audience uses of
                 the media should be avoided (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974,
p.
                 21-22).
 
            The uses and gratifications approach describes many examples of how
media content can serve audience needs, including providing release from
conflict or tension, supplying information or news, presenting entertainment or
amusement, reinforcing personal identity, and assisting in integration into
social group membership (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974, p. 27).
                Recent theoretical refinement of the approach has defined audiences
as "variably active" and identified two types of audience attention to the
media:  "ritualized" or diversionary viewing which is a "less active or less
goal-directed state" and "instrumental" or utilitarian viewing, which is "active
and purposive"  (Rubin, 1994, p. 427).  Finn (1992) has defined audience
activity levels as either proactive (serving mood management needs) or passive
(providing social compensation).
                By applying this theoretical approach to television viewing
behavior, networks attempt to predict viewers' selection of television programs
based on the perceived needs and interests of the target audience.  In order to
cultivate programs for a specific audience, the Fox, Paramount, and Warner
Brothers networks broadcast shows designed to appeal to the specific interests
of the young, male viewer.  One way to gain the attention of this particular
audience is to portray attractive female characters in provocative attire.  This
type of portrayal exemplifies one pattern of  female stereotyping.
 
            Stereotypes
                Walter Lippman is credited with the introduction of the concept of
stereotyping to social scientific research in 1922 (Seiter, 1986).  Over the
past seventy years, vast quantities of research has been generated concerning
this concept.  Erving Goffman's (1974) frame analysis theory provides one
theoretical basis for the stereotyping process.  According to Goffman,
individuals make sense of their experiences by framing each set of stimuli to
corresponding sets of expectations that explain given social situations (1974,
pp. 10 - 11).  Universal or subtle social cues dictate which frame is
appropriate in any given context.   Frame analysis is based on the assumption
that individuals view events as consistent experiences where different rules or
frameworks can be employed as "a way of describing the event to which it is
applied"  (Goffman, 1974, p.24).
                Goffman (1979) illustrated his framing analysis theory with
examples of gender portrayals in newspaper and magazine advertisements.
Although portrayals in advertisements do not necessarily correspond to the
actual behavior of men and women, they do represent how people perceive men and
women to behave (Goffman, 1979, p. vii).  Media cues depicting women as
deferent, or sexual, therefore, could cause framing errors when applied to real
life settings.  A framing error describes a misinterpreted cue between two
individuals (e.g., an epileptic seizure is mistaken for drunkenness) (Goffman,
1974, p. 311).  Media cues generated by stereotypical portrayals of women in
prime time network television programs could cause similar framing errors
regarding gender social roles.
                Hansen and Hansen (1988) examined the effect of sex role stereotype
portrayals in music videos on the accessibility of an individual's sex role
schemas (or structured cognitive processing patterns).  When multiple schemas
exist to explain a given situation, the selected schema typically come from the
most frequently activated schema in the past because it is easier to remember
(or more accessible in recent memory); a schema can also be "primed" or enhanced
by its recent activation from memory (Hansen & Hansen, 1988, p. 288).  In an
experiment, the researchers exposed individuals to either sexual stereotyped or
non-stereotyped music videos and then assessed the subjects' evaluation of a man
and woman interacting as sexually stereotyped or non-stereotyped behavior.
Their findings supported that exposure to stereotyped music videos contributed
to the "priming" of stereotyped schemas in subjects.  Hansen and Hansen (1988)
concluded that:  "The impact of mass media fantasy depictions of sex role
stereotypic persons and behaviors . . . can be extended to the domain of the
real by their capacity to prime biased appraisal of subsequently encountered
real persons and behaviors" (p. 312).  Television network programs'
stereotypical portrayal of women could similarly "prime" viewers' schemas and
reinforce stereotypical attitudes.
            Feminist Theory
                The fundamental tenet of Feminist Theory focuses on "a theoretical
acknowledgment of women's traditional devaluation . . . in relation to men with
the assumption that the relationship needs to change" (Steeves, 1987, p. 96).
Liberal feminism assumes that this change can be accomplished within existing
democratic political structures because they promote an ideal of equal
opportunities for all members.
                In applying Feminist Theory to stereotypical sex role portrayals,
some liberal feminists argue that irrational prejudice can be overcome simply by
rational argument (Steeves, 1987, p. 100).  Other liberal feminists view
stereotypes as more complex issues resulting from socialization.  By adopting a
cognitive (Kohlberg, 1966) or social learning (Bandura, 1977) approach, liberal
feminists interpret children's sex role development and stereotypes as a pattern
of modeling behavior and subsequent reinforcement that can be altered via
rational argument, legal action, and the creation of alternative female role
models (Steeves, 1987, p. 100).  Stereotypical portrayals of women during prime
time television programs, therefore, could perpetuate stereotypes through
modeling behaviors; these same stereotypes may be undermined by presenting
alternative televised role models of women.
                Cultural feminism similarly believes that media portrayals of women
should be "deconstructed" (identified as patriarchal oppression against women)
in order to advance women's equality.  Susan Bordo describes the body as a
cultural medium that is a locus of practical, direct social control (1993, p.
165).  Essentially, there is no "natural" body; the body always exists within a
cultural context.  In Western culture, the mind or spirit has long been regarded
as superior to the physical or material body (Cirksena and Cuklanz, 1992, p.
33).  Influenced by such philosophers as Plato, Descartes, and Augustine and the
tenets of Christianity, Western culture views the mind as separate from the
body:  The mind is conceived as the will, the soul, creativity, and freedom
imprisoned by the animalistic, ravenous, sinful body (Bordo, 1993).
                Since women have long been defined by their bodies through its
reproductive and caregiving nature, this mind/body dualism is a gendered one in
patriarchal society.  Women's plight in Western culture has been dictated by
their inextricable link to the body, implying "the ideological belief that women
represent a lower order of beings, that they are 'less transcendental of nature
than men'" ( Wooley, 1994, p. 20).  Many feminist scholars view the body as a
battleground where women's bodies and their representation have long been
controlled by men (Wooley, 1994).
                Another way feminist theorists deconstruct images of women in the
media is by identifying the media's patriarchal disposition to depict women as
objects.  Liesbet van Zoonen describes this concept as the "display of woman as
spectacle" resulting in "the 'objectification' of women" (1994, p. 87).  Due to
this objectification, mediated portrayals of women tend to be more stereotypical
compared to their male counterparts.  Female characters, indeed, are much more
likely to be portrayed as sexual objects or physically beautiful than male
characters.  These "appearance norms" impose a submissive status to women who
are to be looked at and subsequently judged; appearance is a form of social
control over women practiced by a patriarchal society (Rothblum, 1994, p. 71).
 
            Prior Content Analyses
                A vast body of research has been generated to study stereotypical
portrayals of women on television.  Bretl and Cantor (1988) summarized 15 years
of content analyses in television commercials in the U. S.  Since 1971, findings
indicated that male characters consistently appeared with greater frequency than
female characters and female characters were delegated to traditional settings,
roles, and occupations.  Male narrators in advertisements were also the norm.
Although Bretl and Cantor (1988) indicated that these gaps between male and
female character portrayals may be declining, recent content analyses do not
support this hypothesis [Smith (1994), Signorielli, McLeod, & Healy (1994),
Craig (1992), Lovdal (1989)].  In a study of advertisements on MTV, Signorielli,
McLeod, and Healy (1994) found that women were consistently underrepresented and
stereotypically portrayed.  The researchers specifically compared female and
male characters based on frequency of portrayal, physical fitness,
attractiveness, type of attire (provocative vs. neutral), and frequency of a
character portrayed as the object of another character's stare (or gaze)
(Signorielli, McLeod, & Healy, 1994, p. 93).  The findings confirmed that
stereotypical portrayals of women existed in every category:  Female characters
appeared less often, were more physically fit, more attractive, wore more
provocative attire, and were objects of another character's stare more often
than male characters.
                Comparable to the current study, Donald Davis (1990) conducted a
content analysis of prime time network television programs to determine sex role
stereotyping.  Prior content analyses of network programming [Head (1954),
DeFleur (1964), Tedesco (1974), Turow (1974), Signorielli (1989)] all
encountered underrepresented and stereotypical portrayals of women.  In his more
recent study, Davis categorized male and female prime time television characters
by frequency of portrayals, apparent age, hair color, parental and marital
status, and provocative attire (1990, p. 329).  His findings indicated that
female characters were portrayed less often and were more likely to be younger,
blonde, and dressed more provocatively than their male counterparts (Davis,
1990, p. 329).  The marital and parental status of female characters was also
more likely to be identified than for male characters (Davis, 1990, p. 330).
Davis concluded that the prime time television portrayals of female demographic
data had not significantly changed since the 1950s.
                Based on content analyses generated over the past 40 years,
portrayals of women on network television programs appear to have remained
consistently stereotypical.  This study's first hypothesis, that female
characters will appear less frequently than male characters on prime time
network television programs, corresponds with the trends evidenced in previous
content analytic research findings [Smith (1994), Signorielli, McLeod, & Healy
(1994), Craig (1992), Lovdal (1989)].  The theoretical definition of the
frequency of female character portrayals will be based on the number of female
actresses portrayed in major, minor, and voice-over announcer roles on the
networks' prime time programming compared to their male counterparts in the same
roles.
                With the recent launch of three new television networks in this
decade,[1] stereotypical portrayals of women may actually have increased due to
the young, male audiences targeted by these networks.  This study also
hypothesizes that television programs on networks that target a younger male
audience will contain more stereotypical sex role portrayals than other
networks' programming.  According to television network audience data, FOX and
UPN were identified as the two networks that target young male viewers.[2]
Based on a uses and gratifications theoretical perspective, television networks
will provide programming that appeals to the perceived needs of their target
audiences.  Since the newer networks target a youthful male audience, their
programs have a greater likelihood of containing stereotypical portrayals of
women to appeal to this specific audience segment.  Various types of character
portrayals measured in previous content analyses (e.g., physical attractiveness,
provocative attire, physical fitness, hair color, and age) will provide the
theoretical definitions for stereotypical role portrayals in this study.  A
panel of experts was utilized to establish stereotypical levels for these
variables.
 
            Method
                In order to test the study's hypotheses that (1) female characters
will not appear as frequently as male characters and (2) the network's target
audience will determine the level of female stereotyping in television network
programs, a content analysis was developed to quantify portrayals and to
identify stereotyping in prime time television network programs.  Like other
content analytic research, this study objectively defined, categorized, and
compared various aspects of a communication message, specifically female
depictions in prime time network programming.
                In Content Analysis:  An Introduction to its Methodology, Klaus
Krippendorff provides a definitive reference volume for content analytic
research.  In this text, Krippendorff defines content analysis as "a research
technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context"
(1980, p. 21).  To clarify the procedures for this method of research,
Krippendorff details unitizing, sampling, and recording techniques.  He also
identifies reliability and validity tests appropriate to the research method.
These guidelines, therefore, were carefully utilized in the current research
study.  Other texts describing content analyses methodology [Babbie (1995),
Weber (1990), Holsti (1969), Budd, Thorp, & Donohew (1967)], provided additional
references for the current work.
 
            Sampling
                Promotional advertisements were videotaped for prime time network
television programs broadcast Monday through Sunday from 8 PM to 11 PM on five
networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, and UPN) in a mid-size, northeastern U. S.
television market.[3]  Because these promotional spots are designed to entice
viewers, it is likely that the most exciting (and probably most stereotypical)
content within the program will appear during these advertisements.  It was
assumed that networks were more likely to air these promotional spots during
prime time; therefore, the 8 PM to 11 PM time period was chosen for the study.
Promotional advertisements were recorded on consecutive evenings from September
11 to September 17, 1995.  Due to the recent or imminent launch of the networks'
new television season, this week was deemed particularly germane for the study
as a time when networks would be heavily promoting their new programs.
                Network promotional spots were defined as any advertisement that
promotes a prime time network program.  In order to avoid including syndicated
and local programs within the sample, TV Guide's Fall Preview issue (Sept. 16,
1995) was used to identify the titles of network programs to be included in the
study.  All network promotional advertisements broadcast during this sample were
content analyzed, coding female stereotyping within the promotional spots.
Repeat promotional advertisements were coded as they appeared in the sample.
 
            Operational Definitions
                As stated previously, representatives from each network were
contacted in order to identify specific target audiences.  Network target
audiences, therefore, have been defined by the networks themselves and confirmed
through popular and trade press articles.  During prime time, ABC, CBS, and NBC
target an adult audience from 18 to 49 years of age.  Prior to this year, FOX
presented programs to appeal to a predominately younger, male audience.  The FOX
network is currently in a transitionary phase in an effort to expand its
audience to more closely resemble the traditional three networks (e.g., adults
aged 18 to 49).  Modeling itself after FOX, UPN is initially pursuing a male
audience between the ages of 18 and 34.
                In order to identify potential sex stereotyping in the promotional
spots coded, this study measured the proportional representation of women in
major and minor character roles.  The race and age of each character were also
recorded to identify the diversity of portrayals between men and women.
Characters' attire, in addition, was coded to determine whether female
characters were more often portrayed in provocative dress than male characters.
Based on the stereotypical assumption that female characters will be presented
as more attractive and physically fit, these two characteristics were also
coded.  In order to replicate findings from a previous content analysis of prime
time network programs (Davis, 1990), hair color was also identified to determine
if female characters are more often portrayed as blondes than male characters.
                In order to identify if certain program formats portray more
females than males and vice versa, the genre of each program was coded (e.g.,
comedy, drama, news, etc.).  If a voice-over announcer was utilized in the
promotional spot, the gender of the announcer was coded to determine if male
voices were more frequently used than female voices.
                For each of the promotional advertisements coded in the study,
therefore, stereotypical sex role portrayals were analyzed for the following
characteristics:  frequency of portrayal; character role (e.g., primary
character, minor character); character race; apparent age; type of attire (e.g.,
provocative); physical attractiveness; physical fitness; and hair color.
Promotional announcements were also coded for genre (e.g., drama, comedy, news
program, etc.) and announcer (voice-over) gender.  The coding instruction manual
(Appendix A) provides the complete listing of operational definitions for each
of these characteristics.
                In order to classify certain variables coded in the content
analysis as stereotypical, a panel of "experts" validated the level of
stereotyping contained in each of the following variables:  character attire,
attractiveness, physical fitness, hair color, and age.  A purposive sample of
undergraduate, graduate, and faculty members at a communications school in the
northeastern United States was asked to rank each variable indicator on a
five-point Likert scale ranging from very stereotypical to not at all
stereotypical.  Results were then used to create an index of "stereotypicality"
for each variable measured.
 
            Coders and Inter-Coder Reliability
                In order to train coders for this content analysis, the researcher
developed a coding instruction manual detailing every aspect of coding
procedures (Appendix A).  Two coders received extensive pre-test training:
studying the coding instruction book, perfecting individual understanding of
each variable definition, and coding several sample programs in order to
establish inter-coder reliability prior to coding the promotional advertisements
for the main study.  As a result of these pre-test coding sessions, the coding
sheets were revised in order to perfect variable definitions and facilitate
accurate coding.  Holsti's coefficient of reliability (( 2M / N1 + N2) and
Scott's pi[4] were calculated to determine an acceptable level of inter-coder
reliability for the study (Holsti, 1969, p. 140).  The statistical package SPSS
Version 6.1 was utilized for statistical data analysis.  Frequency
distributions, cross tabulations, and analyses of variance were used for the
statistical analysis of the data.
            Results
                A total of 811 promotional announcements and 969 characters were
coded from the sample.  Based on Holsti's coefficient of reliability,
inter-coder reliability levels ranged between .74 and .96, all within acceptable
reliability standards.  Scott's pi or index of reliability was computed for the
five stereotyping variables, with an average value of .81.[5]
                Table 1 provides percentage results for variables coded for all
television networks.  The predominant program formats were comedy (51.3%) and
drama (27%).  Male voices dominated as voice-over announcers comprising 95.7%;
the remaining promotional advertisements featured no announcer (2.5%), both male
and female announcers simultaneously (1.6%) or female announcers (0.2%).
                The majority of characters were male (55.6%) and Caucasian (85.2%).
The characters portrayed also tended more frequently to be young adults (61.7%)
or middle-aged (30.7%).  The majority of characters were shown in major roles
(67.8%).  Most of the variables measuring the level of stereotyping of
characters tended to cluster around "neutral" or "average" values.  The most
frequently occurring category for character attire, for example, was neutral
(63.2%), with somewhat unprovocative (16.9%) and somewhat provocative (13.6%)
ranking second and third.  The character attractiveness variable was mainly
split between two categories: average (45.2%) and somewhat attractive (43.4%).
The physical fitness of characters again heavily favored the average category
(80.7%).  Finally, the majority of characters' hair color was brown (47.5%),
blonde (20.1%), and black (16.4%).
                Crosstabulation results in Table 4 show that the majority of
characters portrayed were white young adults, regardless of gender.  Female
characters were more likely to be coded in a major role (70.5%) than male
characters.  All characters were predominately classified in the neutral attire
category, although more women were found in the somewhat provocative (24.0% for
women, 5.4% for males) and very provocative (6.7% for women and 5.9% for males)
categories.  Female characters were also more likely to be somewhat attractive
(57.2%) than male characters (32.5%).  The majority of men (81.3%) and women
(80.0%) were in average physical shape, although a larger percent of female
characters (14.0%) were in somewhat good shape than male characters (2.2%).  The
predominate hair color among male characters was brown (64.2%) and blonde
(38.8%) for female characters.
                Crosstabulation results for female characters categorized by
network representation is presented in Table 5.  These findings have been
reported without corresponding statistics due to the distinct nature of the
results:  Most of the crosstabulation tables yielded results with more than 20
percent of cells containing expected frequencies of less than five.  Rather than
collapse categories and recode variables to correct this problem, it was
determined that the empty cells themselves provided significant results for
analyses that would be lost if variables were recoded.
                All networks portrayed predominately Caucasian characters.  FOX
portrayed the highest percentage of African-American women (26.7%), while ABC
and UPN did not portray any African-American female characters.[6]  Young adult
was the most frequent age category for female characters on all networks except
CBS, with half of its characters coded as middle-aged.  ABC, CBS, and FOX were
the only networks to portray female children (3.7%, 0.6%, and 12.0%,
respectively) while ABC ranked heaviest on the elderly age category (15%).  NBC,
FOX, and UPN did not portray any elderly women characters.
                All television networks except FOX portrayed more women in major
roles than minor ones.  For the character attire variable, all of the networks
most frequently portrayed characters dressed in neutral attire.  FOX and UPN,
however, more frequently portrayed female characters in very provocative dress
(21.3% and 18.8%, respectively).  No networks portrayed any female characters in
the very unprovocative attire category.  ABC and NBC were more likely to portray
female characters as average in attractiveness (46.7% and 56.4%, respectively)
compared to the somewhat attractive category for CBS (70.2%), FOX (69.3%), and
UPN (62.5%).  UPN and ABC ranked highest in very attractive female portrayals
(15.6% and 12.1%, respectively), while CBS and NBC ranked highest in the
somewhat unattractive portrayal category (6.2% and 5.5%).  No networks portrayed
any women in the very unattractive category.
                For female characters' physical fitness, all networks most often
portrayed average body types.  FOX and UPN were the only networks to portray
women who were very fit and ABC was the only network to portray females who were
very unfit.  All of the networks portrayed predominately blonde characters,
although NBC portrayed almost equal numbers of blonde (36.4%) and brown-haired
(34.5%) characters.
                Two-way analyses of variance were run for all stereotypical
variables coded.  In order to assess the level of "stereotypicality" for these
variables, a panel of experts consisting of 25 undergraduate, graduate, and
faculty members at a communications school in the northeastern United States
determined each variable's level of stereotyping (Appendix C).  Individuals who
study mass communication and television were deemed more likely to be "experts"
in the area of identifying stereotypical television portrayals of women.  The
purposive sample included approximately equal numbers of men and women within
each age group.  Values for each stereotypical variable were calculated by
taking the mean response from the 25 experts (Table 6).  For the variable
character hair color, for example, the value "blonde" received a rating of 4.36
and the value "brown" was rated at 2.88.  This permitted the five stereotyping
variables (e.g., attire, attractiveness, age, physical fitness, and hair
color)[7] to be used as the dependent measures in the analyses of variance
(Figures 1 through 5).
                Two-way analyses of variance of the stereotypical variables by
network and character gender generated some interesting interactions.  Figure 1
depicts stereotypical attire and demonstrates a clear two-way interaction
between the veteran three networks and FOX and UPN.  The two newer networks
demonstrate much higher levels of stereotypical female attire portrayals than
male compared to ABC, CBS, and NBC.
                Figure 2 depicts a very similar relationship, with FOX and UPN
ranking female characters higher on the attraction stereotype scale than males.
The other three networks show more congruent portrayals among male and female
characters.  Figure 3 shows NBC and FOX as clearly depicting female characters'
by stereotypical ages more than the other networks.  Males on ABC actually
ranked higher in stereotyping for this variable than women.  UPN ranked both men
and women highly (although men slightly higher than women).
                ABC and CBS portrayed similar levels of fitness between female and
male characters in Figure 4, while NBC demonstrated a tendency to depict females
more stereotypically than male characters regarding physical fitness.  The two
newer networks, however, again portrayed the most striking divergence between
male and female characters compared to the veteran networks.  Both FOX and UPN
rank females significantly higher than males for this stereotypical portrayal.
                The hair color stereotype in Figure 5 was the only variable
measured which demonstrated no interaction.  Female characters consistently
ranked higher than males for this stereotypical portrayal across all networks
except UPN.   The portrayal of females and males for stereotypical hair color
was more comparable on UPN than the other networks.
 
            Discussion
                The "symbolic annihilation of women" described by Gaye Tuchman over
15 years ago in Hearth and Home (1978) appears to be alive and well in prime
time television portrayals today.  This content analysis of prime time
television network promotional advertisements demonstrated that female
characters are still significantly underrepresented compared to male characters.
It is also surprising that television networks were more likely to use no
voice-over announcer than female announcers.  In fact, women are practically
invisible in the role of announcer for every network.  The first hypothesis that
female characters will not appear as frequently as male characters, was
supported.  This finding demonstrates a persistent trend of women's
underrepresentation on television, as evidenced in the work of Signorielli,
McLeod, and Healy (1994), Davis (1990), Bretl and Cantor (1988), and many
others.
                Although not specifically hypothesized in this research, the role
of minorities on prime time television may have faired even worse than women,
with whites comprising well over three-fourths of all portrayals.
African-Americans account for approximately ten percent, while all other races
are almost non-existent.  The "other ethnicity" category (comprising 3.4% of all
characters coded) is somewhat misleading; it does not represent diversity in
ethnic portrayal because it consists predominately of cartoon characters that
did not represent any race.  The fact that these "non-race" characters rank
third in ethnic portrayals in prime-time programming is remarkable.  These
results are consistent with previous content analytic studies conducted by mass
communication researchers and suggest that prime time television representations
of minorities have not changed significantly in recent years.
                Results showed some support for the study's second hypothesis, that
the level of female stereotyping in television network programs depends on the
network's target audience.  FOX and UPN were predicted to depict more
stereotypical portrayals of women in programming designed to target their
predominately young, male audiences.  Across all networks, female characters
were generally portrayed in more provocative attire, as more attractive, and
more physically fit than male characters.  These findings directly support the
previous work of Signorielli, McLeod, and Healy (1994) who also found that women
on television were portrayed as more attractive, more provocatively dressed, and
more physically fit than male characters.  Women were also more likely than men
to be blondes, which confirms a previous study conducted by Davis (1990).  This
study's results, therefore, support forty years of content analytic research
describing female characters as consistently more stereotyped than male
characters on television [Head (1954), DeFleur (1964), Tedesco (1974), Turow
(1974), Signorielli (1989)].  Apparently, there has been little or no
development in televised female portrayals despite suggestions to the contrary
by network executives and the popular press.
                The study's second hypothesis actually contributes a new dimension
to the content analytic stereotyping literature by comparing female portrayals
across five networks.  When specifically analyzing FOX and UPN portrayals
compared to the other three networks, crosstabulation results indicate that FOX
was more likely to portray women in minor character roles, dressed in
provocative attire, and more physically fit than the other networks.  UPN was
also more likely to depict women as more attractive, physically fit, and
provocatively dressed than the three veteran networks.
                The two-way interactions depicted in Figures 1 through 4 show clear
support that FOX, and to a lesser extent UPN, depict females more
stereotypically across the majority of variables tested.  These results support
the uses and gratifications approach defining audiences as choosing television
content based upon perceived needs; television networks, subsequently, produce
specific content in their programs in order to attract target audience members.
With FOX and UPN targeting a younger, male audience, it is logical that these
networks' portrayals of women will be somewhat more stereotypical than the other
three networks that generally target male and female viewers between the ages of
18 and 49.
                One key limitation of the current study concerns the sampling of
promotional advertisements rather than entire prime time programs.  Future
research perhaps should not restrict analysis to promotional announcements.  It
is possible that the study's assumption that promotional announcements are more
likely to contain more exciting (and more stereotypical) content than the
programs themselves may have been an erroneous one.  Future studies should
analyze entire program content in order to replicate these findings.
 
             Table 1.  Percentages for promotional announcement variables.
 
            Variables                               %
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Promo format
              Action Adventure                    5.3
              Comedy                            51.3
              Drama                             27.0
              News                                        3.7
              Other                                     12.7              .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=811)
 
 
            Voice-over announcer gender
              Male                                      95.7
              Female                              0.2
              Both                                        1.6
              None                                      . 2.5              .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=811)
             Table 2.  Percentages for character demographic variables.
 
            Variables                               %
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Character sex
                Male                            55.6
                Female                          44.4              .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
 
 
            Character race
               Caucasian                                 85.2
               African American                  10.7
               Hispanic                            0.5
               Asian                               0.1
               American Indian                     0.0
               Other                            .  3.4             .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
 
 
 
            Character role
              Major                                     67.8
              Minor                             32.2             .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
 
             Table 3.  Percentages for character stereotype variables.
 
            Variables                               %
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Character age
               Child                                      3.1
               Teenager                           0.9
               Young adult                              61.7
               Middle-aged                              30.7
               Elderly                          . 3.6              .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
            Character attire
               Very provocative                   6.3
               Somewhat provocative             13.6
               Neutral                          63.2
               Somewhat unprovocative           16.9
               Not provocative                  . 0.0              .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
            Character attractiveness
               Very attractive                    4.5
               Somewhat attractive                      43.4
               Average                          45.2
               Somewhat unattractive              6.8
               Not attractive                   . 0.0             .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
            Character physical fitness
               In good shape                      1.9
               In somewhat good shape             7.4
               Average                          80.7
               Somewhat out of shape              7.6
               Very out of shape                        . 2.4              .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
            Character hair color
               Brown                             47.5
               Black                             16.4
               Blonde                            20.1
               Red/Auburn                                10.6
               Gray/White                                  3.5
               Bald                                        0.9
               Other                            .  0.9              .
                                                100.0%
                                                (N=969)
             Table 4.  Crosstabulation of character variables by gender.
                                                            Gender
            Variable                            Male                    Female
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
            Character race
               Caucasian                                 81.1                   90.5
               African American                  14.3                     6.3
               Other                               4.6                    3.3
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------                                                      100.0%           100.0%
                                                (N=539)         (N=430)
            X2 = 17.90, df = 2, p < .001
            Cramer's V = .14
 
 
            Variable                            Male                    Female
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
            Character age
               Child                                      3.0                    3.3
               Teenager                           1.1                    0.7
               Young adult                              62.7                    60.5
               Middle-aged                              30.1                    31.4
               Elderly                            3.2                    4.2
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------                                                      100.0%          100.0%
                                                (N=539)         (N=430)
            X2 = 1.55, df = 4, ns
            Cramer's V = .04
 
 
            Variable                            Male                    Female
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
            Character role
               Major                               65.7                   70.5
               Minor                               34.3                   29.5
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
                                                100.0%          100.0%
                                                (N=539)         (N=430)
            X2 = 2.52, df = 1, ns
            Cramer's V = .05
 
 
 
 
             Table 4 (continued).  Crosstabulation of character variables by
gender.
            Variable                            Male                    Female
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
            Character attire
               Very provocative                    5.9                     6.7
               Somewhat provocative                5.4                   24.0
               Neutral                           63.6                    62.6
               Somewhat unprovocative            25.0                      6.7
               Not provocative                     0.0                     0.0
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
                                                100.0%          100.0%
                                                (N=539)         (N=430)
            X2 = 108.20, df = 3, p < .001
            Cramer's V = .33
 
 
            Variable                            Male                    Female
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
            Character attractiveness
               Very attractive                     2.2                     7.4
               Somewhat attractive                       32.5                    57.2
               Average                           55.5                    32.3
               Somewhat unattractive               9.8                     3.0
               Unattractive                                0.0                     0.0
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
                                                100.0%          100.0%
                                                (N=539)         (N=430)
            X2 = 92.67, df = 3, p < .001
            Cramer's V = .31
 
            Variable                            Male                    Female
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
 
            Character physical fitness
               In good shape                       2.2                     1.4
               In somewhat good shape              2.2                   14.0
               Average                           81.3                    80.0
               Somewhat out of shape             11.9                      2.3
               Very out of shape                           2.4                     2.3
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
                                                100.0%          100.0%
                                                (N=539)         (N=430)
            X2 = 73.77, df = 4, p < .001
            Cramer's V = .28
            Table 4 (continued).  Crosstabulation of character variables by
gender.
 
            Variable                            Male                    Female
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
            Character hair color
               Brown                             64.2                    26.5
               Black                             20.4                    11.4
               Blonde                              5.2                   38.8
               Red/Auburn                                  1.7                   21.9
               Other                               8.5                             1.4
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------
                                                100.0%          100.0%
                                                (N=539)         (N=430)
            X2 = 332.35, df = 4, p < .001
            Cramer's V = .59
 
 
           Table 5.  Crosstabulation of female characters by network.
 
          Variable              ABC             CBS             NBC             FOX             UPN
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
          Character race
             Caucasian          100.0           96.3              94.5            61.3            90.6
             African American      0.0            2.5               5.5           26.7              0.0
             Other                 0.0            1.2               0.0           12.0              9.4
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
                                100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%
                                (N=107) (N=161) (N=55)          (N=75)          (N=32)
 
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
          Character age
             Child                          3.7            0.6             0.0          12.0              0.0
             Teenager               1.9            0.6             0.0            0.0             0.0
             Young adult                  47.7           46.6            85.5           88.0            65.6
             Middle-aged                  31.8           50.9            14.5             0.0           34.4
             Elderly              15.0             1.2             0.0            0.0             0.0
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
                                100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%
                                (N=107) (N=161) (N=55)          (N=75)          (N=32)
 
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
          Character role
             Major               83.2            73.3              81.8          42.7             59.4
             Minor               16.8            26.7              18.2          57.3             40.6
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
                                100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%
                                (N=107) (N=161) (N=55)          (N=75)          (N=32)
 
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
          Character attire
             Very prov.            0.0             2.5              5.5         21.3            18.8
             Somewhat prov.      25.2            21.7             16.4          34.7            18.8
             Neutral             73.8            65.8             72.7          40.0            43.8
             Somewhat unprov.      0.9             9.9              5.5           4.0           18.8
             Very unprov.          0.0             0.0              0.0           0.0             0.0
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
                                100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%
                                (N=107) (N=161) (N=55)          (N=75)          (N=32)
          Table 5 (continued).  Crosstabulation of female character variables by
gender.
 
          Variable              ABC             CBS             NBC             FOX             UPN
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
          Character attractiveness
           Very attract.                  12.1            2.5              7.3            8.0           15.6
           Somewhat attract.      41.1          70.2             30.9           69.3            62.5
           Average                46.7          21.1             56.4           22.7            21.9
           Somewhat unattract.      0.0           6.2              5.5            0.0             0.0
           Very unattract.          0.0           0.0              0.0            0.0             0.0
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
                                100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%
                                (N=107) (N=161) (N=55)          (N=75)          (N=32)
 
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
          Character fitness
             Very fit               0.0           0.0              0.0            1.3           15.6
             Somewhat fit           7.5           7.5             16.4          36.0            12.5
             Average              81.3          90.7              83.6          61.3            59.4
             Somewhat unfit         1.9           1.9              0.0            1.3           12.5
             Very unfit             9.3           0.0              0.0            0.0             0.0
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
                                100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%
                                (N=107) (N=161) (N=55)          (N=75)          (N=32)
 
 
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
          Character hair color
             Brown                31.8          28.0             34.5           12.0              21.9
             Black                  7.5           9.3              5.5          21.3              21.9
             Blonde               43.0          36.0             36.4           38.7              43.8
             Red/Auburn           17.8          26.7             23.6           25.3                0.0
             Other                  0.0           0.0              0.0            2.7             12.5
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------
                                100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%  100.0%
                                (N=107) (N=161) (N=55)          (N=75)          (N=32)
 
 
               _
 
             Table 6.  Mean expert rating for character stereotype variables.
 
 
                                                Mean expert rating
            Variables                           of stereotype*
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
            Character attire
               Very provocative                   4.28
               Somewhat provocative               3.88
               Neutral                            2.84
               Somewhat unprovocative             2.32
               Not provocative                    2.52
 
            Character attractiveness
               Very attractive                    4.52
               Somewhat attractive                        3.80
               Average                            2.84
               Somewhat unattractive              2.60
               Not attractive                     2.68
 
            Character age
               Child                                      2.76
               Teenager                           3.60
               Young adult                                4.28
               Middle-aged                                3.28
               Elderly                            2.40
 
            Character physical fitness
               In good shape                      4.32
               In somewhat good shape             3.84
               Average                            3.04
               Somewhat out of shape              2.52
               Very out of shape                          2.96
 
            Character hair color
               Brown                             2.88
               Black                             2.72
               Blonde                            4.36
               Red/Auburn                                3.32
               Gray/White                                2.36
 
 
            *Scale was coded:  1 = not at all stereotypical, 2 = somewhat not
stereotypical, 3 = neutral, 4 = somewhat stereotypical, 5 = very stereotypical.
            Main effects:
                Network, F = 3.94, df = 4, 959, p < .01
                Gender, F = 82.33, df = 1, 959, p < .001
 
            Interaction:
               Network by gender, F = 12.31, df = 4, 959, p < .001
 
            Main effects:
                Network, F = 6.77, df = 4, 959, p < .001
                Gender, F = 81.97, df = 1, 959, p < .001
 
            Interaction:
               Network by gender, F = 9.69, df = 4, 959, p < .001
              Main effects:
                Network, F = 11.39, df = 4, 959, p < .001
                Gender, F = .57, df = 1, 959, ns
 
            Interaction:
               Network by gender, F = 5.85, df = 4, 959, p < .001
              Main effects:
                Network, F = 1.98, df = 4, 959, ns
                Gender, F = 51.34, df = 1, 959, p < .001
 
            Interaction:
               Network by gender, F = 14.56, df = 4, 959, p < .001
              Main effects:
                Network, F = 3.30 df = 4, 941, p < .05
                Gender, F = 307.19, df = 1, 941, p < .001
 
            Interaction:
               Network by gender, F = 3.37, df = 4, 941, ns
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            Appendix A
 
            Content Analysis Coding InstructionsProgram Code Sheet Instructions
 
            Code all television program promotional announcements for prime time
network programs that appear on the videotape between 8 PM and 11 PM (refer to
D. below for timing instructions).  Do not code promos for any shows that are
not prime time (e.g., do not code promos for local or network news, talk shows
like Dave Letterman or Oprah, daytime soap opera and the like).
 
            Complete one program code sheet for each promotional spot coded.
 
            The following represent some unique promotional spots and how to
treat them:
            1.  "Split Promo" - a promo where two shows are advertised
simultaneous with cuts between characters from each show -- code with two
program code sheets for each show represented and then match the characters with
the show they belong to.
            2.  "Montage Promo" - a promo where images from a dozen or so shows
are cut together into one ad -- code each show that is mentioned on an
individual program code sheet and then code only those characters that clearly
belong to that show and meet the coding restrictions (10 seconds on the screen
and/or at least three spoken words).
            3.  "Nestled Promo" - if promo is edited into the credits of a
program (e.g., a split screen or box is used to broadcast the program's credits
and a promo at the same time) do not code the promo.  If the promo is cut in
between an advertisement (e.g., TV Guide has a contest and shows a promo of a
network show during its TV Guide ad), then don't code the promo.  Only code
promos that stand alone and are not part of some other format (e.g., credits or
advertisement).
 
 
            A.  Match the program title with the code numbers listed on
                 pages 5 through 8 of this instruction book.  Write the code
number of
                 the promotional spot's program title in the space provided.
 
            B.  Match the television station network and call letters
                 listed on the videocassette tape you are coding from with the
station
                 network and call letters provided on the program code sheet.
 
            C.  Match the day of week listed on the videocassette tape
                 you are coding from with the day of week provided on the
program code
                 sheet.
 
            D.  When you first place videocassette tape in videocassette
                 machine, tape will be cued up to 8 PM.  Zero out the machine's
timer and
                 indicate the time each promotional aired based upon the timer
reading at
                 the start of the promotional spot.
 
             E. Define program format categories by the following:
                1  Action Adventure - main theme of program is based upon
                 characters that        physically explore and move about in
their
                 environment (e.g., westerns,   police shows, science fiction
adventure
                 shows, etc.).
                2   Comedy - main theme of program is based upon comic
                 dialogue and   situations (e.g., situation comedies).
                3   Drama - main theme of program is dramatized serious
                 fictional content
                        (e.g.,  programs dealing with court drama, family drama,
                 etc.).
                4   News - main theme of program is factual reporting of the news
(e.g.,
                        news magazine programs like 20/20 and 60 Minutes.).
                5  Other - for any type of format not included above, indicate
program format                  in space provided.
 
            F.  Identify the gender of voice-over announcer (voice whose
                 image is never visually presented) as male or female.  If the
                 announcer's voice is computer generated or some other
non-gender source,
                 then code as other.  If no voice-over occurs during the
program, then
                 code as none.
 
            Prime Time Stereotyping
             Character Descriptive Code Sheet Instructions
 
               Code all characters that are depicted for at least ten seconds
and/or speak at least three words during the 30 second promotional spot.  Do not
code characters in instances where you think that characters may have spoken but
announcer's voice drown them out (if you cannot clearly identify the character
and the voice -- do not guess).  Code a character with a "detached voice" (e.g.,
voice is heard without seeing a face speak) only if you are sure that the voice
and body go together).
 
            Compete one character descriptive code sheet for each character to
be coded.
 
            A.  Character number:  code two digit program number first
                 (listed on pages 5 through 8 of this instruction book) followed
by a
                 two-digit character number you will systematically assign to
each
                 character (starting at 01).  Do not repeat assigned numbers;
each
                 character will have a unique number assigned to it.
 
            B.  Character name or description:  list any formal name
                 and/or nickname of the character or list a description of the
character
                 if the name is not identifiable.
 
            C.  Character Role
                1  Major - major characters share the majority of dialogue
                 during the
                    promotional spot, play the largest role in the dramatic
                 action, and appear on
                    the screen for the longest period of time during the
                 spot.
                2  Minor - minor characters have less or no dialogue, play a less
significant role in
                    the dramatic actions, and appear on the screen for a shorter
period of time than
                    major characters during the spot.  For ensemble cast shows
(e.g., ER, Central
                    Park West, Chicago Hope), code all characters as minor because
all are equally
                    supporting roles to each other.
 
             D. Gender
                1  Male
                2  Female
 
            E.  Ethnicity
                1  Caucasian
                2  African American
                3  Hispanic
                4  Asian
                5  American Indian
                6  Other - for any race not included above, indicate race in space
provided.
 
            F.  Approximate Age
                1  Child (approx. 0 to 13 years of age)
                2  Teenager (approx. 13 to 19 years of age)
                3  Young adult (approx. 20 to 39 years of age)
                4  Middle-aged adult (approx. 40 - 60 years of age)
                5  Elderly adult (approx. 60 years or older)
                6  Indeterminate (use this category sparingly -- estimate from
above 6 categories
                            if possible.
 
            G.  Provocative Attire
                1  Very provocative - character's clothing is scanty or
                 sexy, exposing a
                    generous amount of skin and/or is extremely
                 tight-fitting (e.g., partially exposed
                            cleavage, extremely short "mini" skirt).
                2  Somewhat provocative - character's clothing is moderately scanty
or sexy,                    exposing a moderate amount of skin and/or is somewhat
tight-fitting (e.g. bare
                            shoulders, somewhat short skirt).
                3  Neutral - character's clothing is "average" (exhibiting no
distinguishable
                    characteristics that would place it in the provocative or
conservative
                            category; child usually coded here).
                4  Somewhat not provocative -  character's clothing is classically
conservative                (e.g., bland business suit or military uniform -- note:
business suits do not
                    include blazer and blouse on women, men with no tie, or men
with tie and no
                   coat -- characters must be wearing entire suit with coat and tie
to meet #4
                   criteria).
                5  Not provocative - character's clothing covers the majority of
the body at a
                    level considered prudish (e.g., shirt buttoned up to neck
without tie or suit).
 
            H.  Attractiveness
                1  Very attractive - character's facial features are strikingly
attractive or
                    beautiful (e.g., character is striking with "movie star"
looks).  (Note:  if you see
                    only part of a face, code as attractive if the lips or nose is
attractive.)
                2  Somewhat attractive - character's facial features are above
average in
                    attractiveness or beauty (e.g., character is attractive or
"cute" but not striking).
                3  Average - character's facial features exhibit no distinguishable
characteristics
                    that would place it in the attractive or unattractive
categories (e.g., character is
                     "normal" looking -- not attractive or unattractive; child
usually coded here).
                4  Somewhat unattractive - character's facial features are somewhat
ugly or                     homely (e.g., character has unattractive trait like large
nose).
                5  Very unattractive - character's facial features are ugly or
homely (e.g., overall
                     facial appearance is ugly with many homely attributes).
 
 
            I.  Body Type/Physical Fitness
                1  In good shape - character's body appears to be very muscular and
toned (e.g.,                actually see large size muscles or extremely toned or
rippled muscles).
                2  In somewhat good shape - character's body appears to be somewhat
muscular
                    and toned (e.g., clothes are tight enough to display firm body
underneath).
                3  Average - character's body is not overweight but does not show
obvious
                    indications of toned muscles (e.g., clothes give appearance
that body is thin but
                    non-descript in muscle tone; child usually coded here).
                4  Somewhat out of shape - character's body is somewhat overweight
and
                     flabby (e.g., character has "bulge" around stomach area but
otherwise not fat).
                5  Very out of shape - character's body is very overweight and
flabby (e.g.,
                     character is obese).
 
 
 
            J.  Hair Color - chose the predominate hair color of the character
from the list
                provided (e.g., if a character has black hair with a little gray,
categorize as black).
                If hair color of the character is not apparent (e.g., character's
hair is covered with
                hat), then list as indeterminate.
                1  Brown
                2  Black
                3  Blonde
                4  Red/Auburn
                5  Gray/White
                6  Bald
                7  Other (SPECIFY ____________________________)
             Program Coding Numbers
 
            ABC
            Saturday
            001 - The Jeff Foxworthy  Show
            002 - Maybe This Time
            003 - ABC Family Movie (Encino Man)
            108 - ABC Family Movie (Great Mom Swap)
 
            Sunday
            004 - America's Funniest Home Videos
            005 - Lois & Clark
            006 - ABC Sunday Night Movie (Stranger Beside Me)
            109 - ABC Sunday Night Movie (Lethal Weapon III)
 
            Monday
            007 - The Marshall
            008 - ABC's NFL Monday Night Football
            Tuesday
            009 - Roseanne
            010 - Hudson Street
            011 - Home Improvement
            012 - Coach
            013 - NYPD Blue
            Wednesday
            014 - Ellen
            015 - The Drew Carey Show
            016 - Grace Under Fire
            017 - The Naked Truth
            018 - PrimeTime Live
            Thursday
            112 - Day One
            019 - Charlie Grace
            020 - The Monroes
            021 - Murder One
            Friday
            022 - Family Matters
            023 - Boy Meets World
            024 - Step By Step
            025 - Hangin' With Mr. Cooper
            026 - 20/20
 
            CBS
            Additionals
            102 - Her Deadly Rival
            103 - Too Hot to Skate
            104 - Whose Daughter is She?
            113 - Color Me, Barbra
            114 - Sneak Peak
            Saturday
            027 - Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman
            028 - Touched By An Angel
            029 - Walker, Texas Ranger
            Sunday
            030 - 60 Minutes
            031 - Cybill
            032 - Almost Perfect
            033 - CBS Sunday Night Movie
            Monday
            034 - The Nanny
            035 - Can't Hurry Love
            036 - Murphy Brown
            037 - If Not For You
            038 - Chicago Hope
            Tuesday
            039 - John Grisham's The Client
            040 - CBS Tuesday Night Movie (The Secretary)
            Wednesday
            041 - Bless This House
            042 - Dave's World
            043 - Central Park West
            044 - Courthouse
            Thursday
            045 - Murder, She Wrote
            046 - New York News
            047 - 48 Hours
            Friday
            048 - Dweebs
            049 - Bonnie Hunt
            050 - Picket Fences
            051 - American Gothic
 
            Fox
            Saturday
            052 - Martin
            053 - The Preston Episodes
            054 - Cops
            055 - America's Most Wanted
            Sunday
            056 - Space:  Above and Beyond
            057 - The Simpsons
            058 - Too Something
            059 - Married With Children
            060 - Misery Loves Company
            105 - Fox Football -- NFL Sunday
            Monday
            061 - Melrose Place
            062- Partners
            063 - Ned and Stacey
            106 - Emmy Awards Special
            Tuesday
            064 - The Fox Tuesday Night Movie (Divas)
            116 - The Fox Tuesday Night Movie (In the Name of Love)
            Wednesday
            065 - Beverly Hills, 90210
            066 - Party of Five
            Thursday
            067 - Living Single
            068 - The Crew
            069 - New York Undercover
            Friday
            070 - Strange Luck
            071 - The X-Files
 
            NBC
            Saturday
            072 - JAG
            073 - The John Larroquette Show
            074 - The Home Court
            075 - Sisters
            Sunday
            076 - Brotherly Love
            077 - Minor Adjustments
            078 - Mad About You
            079 - Hope & Gloria
            080 - NBC Sunday Night at the Movies (Zoya)
            110 - NBC Sunday Night at the Movies (Unspoken Truth)
            107-  Miss America Pageant
            Monday
            081 - Fresh Prince
            082 - In the House
            083 - NBC Monday Night Movie (Various/multiple movie promo)
            111 - NBC Monday Night Movie (Beauty's Revenge)
            117 - NBC Monday Night Movie (Thelma and Louise)
 
            Tuesday
            084 - Wings
            085 - NewsRadio
            086 - Fraiser
            087 - The Pursuit of Happiness
            088 - Dateline NBC
            Wednesday
            089 - seaQuest DSV
            090 - Law and Order
            Thursday
            091 - Friends
            092 - The Single Guy
            093 - Seinfeld
            094 - Caroline in the City
            095 - ER
            Friday
            096 - Unsolved Mysteries
            097 - Homicide:  Life in the Streets
 
            UPN
            Monday
            098 - Star Trek:  Voyager
            099 - Nowhere Man
            Tuesday
            100 - Deadly Games
            101 - Live Shot
            Saturday
            115 - UPN Movie (There Goes the Neighborhood)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Appendix B
 
            Content Analysis Coding Instrument
 
 
            Program Code Sheet
 
            A.  Program code (code the number of the promotional
                spot's program title as listed on pages 5-8 in the
                 coding instruction book)                                          ____________
 
            B.  Station code
                1  ABC - WIXT (Channel 9)
                2  CBS  - WTVH (Channel 5)
                3  FOX - WSYT (Channel 68)
                4  NBC - WSTM (Channel 3)
                5  UPN - WSNR (Channel 43)                               ____________
 
            C.  Day of Week Promotional Spot Aired
                1  Monday                       5  Friday
                2  Tuesday                      6  Saturday
                3  Wednesday                    7  Sunday
                4  Thursday                                                      ____________
 
            D.  Time Promotional Spot Aired
                1   7  PM -  7:59 PM
                2   8  PM -  8:59 PM
                3   9  PM -  9:59 PM
                4  10 PM - 10:59 PM                                              ____________
 
            E.  Program Format
                1  Action Adventure
                2  Comedy
                3  Drama
                4  News
                5  Other (SPECIFY ____________________________) ____________
 
            F.  Gender of Voice-Over Announcer
                1  Male
                2  Female
                3  No Announcer
                4  Other (SPECIFY ____________________________) ____________
 
 
 
                Character Descriptive Code Sheet
               A.       Character number                                                             ____________
 
               B.       Character name or description  ____________________
 
               C.       Character Role
                1  Major
                2  Minor                                                                      ____________
 
               D.       Gender
                1  Male
                2  Female                                                                         ____________
 
               E.       Ethnicity
                1  Caucasian
                2  African American
                3  Hispanic
                4  Asian
                5  American Indian
                6  Other (SPECIFY ____________________________)                   ____________
 
               F.       Approximate age
                1  Child                                4  Middle-aged adult
                2  Teenager                     5  Elderly adult
                3  Young adult                  6  Indeterminate                                  ____________
 
               G.       Provocative Attire
                1  Very provocative
                2  Somewhat provocative
                3  Neutral
                4  Somewhat unprovocative
                5  Not provocative                                                        ____________
 
               H.       Attractiveness
                1  Very attractive
                2  Somewhat attractive
                3  Average
                4  Somewhat unattractive
                5  Very unattractive                                                      ____________
 
               I.       Body Type/Physical Fitness
                1  In good shape
                2  In somewhat good shape
                3  Average
                4  Somewhat out of shape
                5  Very out of shape                                                       ___________
 
               J.       Hair Color
                1  Brown
                2  Black
                3  Blonde
                4  Red/Auburn
                5  Gray/White
                6   Bald
                7  Other (SPECIFY ____________________________)
____________
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Appendix C
 
            Stereotyping Expert Questionnaire
 
                Stereotyping has been defined as making broad generalizations about
a group of people based on a very narrow assumption about that group's role or
identity in society.  Seeing certain groups of people performing stereotypical
activities may cause reinforcement of these stereotypes.  For example, seeing
women on television as always in a traditional, domestic role in the home may
support the stereotype that "a woman's place is in the home."  Or seeing young,
attractive women on television who seem to decorate the program more than
advance the plot may reinforce the stereotype of women as "sex object."
                Listed below are various ways to describe female television
characters.  For each question, give your opinion if this description is:
 
                1  = not at all stereotypical
                2  = somewhat not stereotypical
                3  = neutral
                4  = somewhat stereotypical
                5  = very stereotypical
 
            __________________________________________________________________
            The way the female character is generally dressed:
 
            Very Provocative    1               2               3               4               5
 
            Somewhat
             Provocative                1               2               3               4               5
 
            Average             1               2               3               4               5
 
            Somewhat
              Unprovocative     1               2               3               4               5
 
             Not Provocative    1               2               3               4               5
            __________________________________________________________________
            KEY:
                1  = not at all stereotypical
                2  = somewhat not stereotypical
                3  = neutral
                4  = somewhat stereotypical
                5  = very stereotypical
            _________________________________________________________________
            The general attractiveness of the female character:
 
            Very Attractive     1               2               3               4               5
 
            Somewhat
               Attractive               1               2               3               4               5
 
            Average             1               2               3               4               5
 
            Somewhat
             Unattractive               1               2               3               4               5
 
            Very Unattractive   1               2               3               4               5
            __________________________________________________________________
            __________________________________________________________________
 
            How physically fit the female character generally is:
 
            In good shape       1               2               3               4               5
 
            In somewhat
              good shape                1               2               3               4               5
 
            Average             1               2               3               4               5
 
            Somewhat
              out of shape              1               2               3               4               5
 
            Very out of shape   1               2               3               4               5
            __________________________________________________________________
 
 
            KEY:
                1  = not at all stereotypical
                2  = somewhat not stereotypical
                3  = neutral
                4  = somewhat stereotypical
                5  = very stereotypical
            __________________________________________________________________
 
            The hair color of the female character generally is:
 
            Brown               1               2               3               4               5
            Black               1               2               3               4               5
            Blonde      1               2               3               4               5
            Red/Auburn  1               2               3               4               5
            Gray                1               2               3               4               5
            __________________________________________________________________
 
 
            __________________________________________________________________
 
            Age or how old the female character generally is:
 
                 Child          1               2               3               4               5
                 Teenager               1               2               3               4               5
                 Young Adult    1               2               3               4               5
                 Middle Aged    1               2               3               4               5
                 Elderly                1               2               3               4               5
            __________________________________________________________________
 
            [1]                 These three new television networks are Fox,
                 Paramount, and Warner Brothers.  Due to its lack of
representation in
                 the market studied for this analysis and significantly smaller
number of
                 affiliates nationwide than UPN, the Warner Brothers Network has
been
                 excluded from this study.
            [2]                 Representatives from each network were contacted
                 directly in order to identify specific target audiences.
Definitions of
                 network target audiences, therefore, were based on network
sources,
                 popular and trade press articles.
            [3]                 The Warner Brothers Network has been excluded from
                 this study for the reasons discussed previously.  Due to the
                 non-commercial nature of public television, the PBS affiliate
was also
                 excluded in the sample.  Because a public television station
does not t
                 arget certain audiences in order to sell commercial
advertising, it was
                 deemed inappropriate for inclusion in the study.
            [4]            pi     =      % observed agreement - % expected agreement
                1 - % expected agreement
            [5]         The Scott's pi reliability results for each variable were:
promo format = .91, promo announcer gender = .92, character role = .83,
character gender = .95, character race = .93, character age = .95, character
attire = .87, character attractiveness = .67, character physical fitness = .72,
character hair color = .82.
            [6]         Although 12% of female ethnic portrayals on FOX were
                 coded in the "other" category, most of these represent cartoon
                 characters (e.g., The Simpsons) of indeterminate race.
            [7]         An overall stereotypical index scale was also computed
                 yielding a reliability coefficient standardized item alpha of
.66, which
                 was deemed too low for inclusion in the analysis.

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