MAKING A DIFFERENCE: PROFESSIONALS & EDUCATORS
WORKING TOGETHER TO STRENGTHEN STUDENT NEWSPAPERS
Mary Peterson Arnold
School of Journalism and Mass Communication
The Uty of Iowa - 303 CC
Iowa City IA 52242-1528
Abstract: This paper is a compilation of ideas and program
suggestions for improving student newspapers in high schools by linking them
with the newspaper industry. The information, collected via a literature review
and a content analysis of recent scholastic journalism publications, can be
combined into any number of partnership programs.
A paper submitted for presentation to the Scholastic Journalism
Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication
Anaheim, California, August 1996
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: PROFESSIONALS & EDUCATORS
WORKING TOGETHER TO STRENGTHEN STUDENT NEWSPAPERS
As Bob Dylan said back in the 60s, "The times, they are
a-changin.'" Nowhere is this more evident than in this nation's newspapers.
With increased electronic media outlets (i.e., cable), the explosion of the "new
media" and the proliferation of "special interest" magazines, newspapers face
stiff competition on all sides.
The greatest concern is the threat implied by the "new media." For
5,000 years information has been packaged, stored and transmitted in the
ink-on-paper format. However, ink-on-paper is no longer the sole medium of
choice. For reasons of cost and efficiency the Internet with its electrons
stored on silicon has become increasingly popular. This shift from ink-on-paper
to digital information offers both a "challenge and an unprecedented opportunity
for those who relish ideas and communicating them."
The challenges before the newspaper industry are encapsulated in a
recent speech by Al Neuharth, self-confessed S.O.B. and CEO of the Freedom
"More than three decades ago the Canadian media guru,
McLuhan predicted the 'death of the print media'
specifically the newspaper which he
thought would be pass in the age of information and the
global village. Much of what
McLuhan predicted has come to pass in big cities, small
towns and villages the world
over. Instant and constant global communications via
satellites have made that
possible. In such an environment it is no wonder that we
ask whether newspapers are
needed, whether they can make the journey into the future,
or whether they will be run
over by a truck on the Information Superhighway."
"The future of newspapers may be part of the technology
underway in this country and around the world. No one
doubts that news has a future or
the people will want it. They will want to know more. The
only question is who will
provide it. Will it be the TV, the computer, or the "flat
panel newspaper" developed
by Knight-Ridder and the MIT Media Lab.
"...Since 1970 the proportion of adults who regularly read
daily newspaper has dropped from 78 percent to 62. Despite
our population growth,
total daily newspaper circulation has remained flat for a
quarter century at about 60
"...In recent years, newspapers realizing that some of
competitors in the communications industry have targeted
them for the scrap heap, have
fought back. They've tried to segment their markets, aimed
special editions of the
paper at particular consumersDthe youth market, sports
enthusiasts and othersDmoving
away from the so-called general circulation audience. They
themselves, to use an industry term, and are increasingly
trying to sell themselves to
specific groups in the community or to market more
aggressively their special features
Neuharth, the man who "created" USA Today, the newspaper that was
itself viewed as a threat to newspapers when released back in the 1980s, has
identified the major points in today's debate.
1. Will newspapers (as we know them, printed on paper) survive?
2. Who will read them?
3. Where will those readers come from?
These points also introduce one major focus of this paperDhow
newspapers and "new readers" have interacted in the past few years. The second
is how these two entities can sustain and enrich one another in the uncertain
Several research organizations are looking at what the industry
calls "new readers" or "tomorrow's readers." Most often this "segment" is
divided into two types of potential readers. The first segment is the 38
percent of adults who do not read the papers. The second segement is "young
One of the problems in defining this "market segment" is that
different age groups are used. Kathleen Criner, newspaper consultant with
Criner-Wilson: New Media For Newspapers, defines the youth group as those
persons "between the ages of 5 and 24." Criner says that "by the year 2010, the
youth market "will account for roughly one-fourth to one-third of the
population." She says that this market is "also fairly well-heeled.
According to various researchers, even the younger part of this segmentDchildren
between the ages of 8 and 17Dspend about $97 million annually. They also
influence another $20 to $30 million worth of purchases made by parents and
Criner notes that the youth market is getting on-line. Both
America On-line and CompuServe estimate that families with children under 18
comprise roughly 40 to 45 percent of their subscribers and that 60 percent of
Prodigy's subscribers are estimated to be families.
Criner challenges the newspaper industry to work collectively to
build awareness. The industry needs to track and assess the efforts of other
media (on-line services, cable TV, Channel One) both nationally and in local
markets. She says that the newspapers need to systematically monitor other
media on-line efforts to help calibrate their impact and determine the level of
investment necessary to remain competitive.
Criner calls for a systematic and sustained effort by the newspaper
industry to better understand the youth market and how to serve it. She
cautions that while NIE is a good starting point with a base of 67,000
participating schools reaching more that eight million students, only about 700
out of the 1,400 dailies participate. She encourages newspapers to "follow the
leads of the News and Observer in Raleigh, the Orange County Register and a
number of the Knight-Ridder papers by providing opportunities to link schools,
facilitate Internet access and connect teachers and kids. In other words, "go
Another organization working in this area, New Directions for News,
divides this "segment" into young adults (which form 30 percent of the U.S.
population) and kids/teens which represent 15 percent. These are two of the
"five key emerging newspaper audience segments" defined by New Directions for
News in 1993. Since 1989 New Directions sought to find new or
"undercovered" demographic segments of the national population. They have:
1. Created and distributed two series of videos with
2. Sponsored and or presented sessions at several journalism
education and professional conferences,
3. Released prototype publications targeted at new
4. Produced a publication that provides news story ideas,
pages and products for newspapers.
As you can see, this "market segment" is can be divided any number
of ways. For this paper, it is divided into "children" (pre-school and grammar
school children) and "youth" which includes early adolescents and teenagers
(middle school and high school students). College students are categorized as
The "Youth Market"
By virtue of group size, buying power and increasing role in family
decision making, the youth constitute and important "market." It is one that
has proved illusive for the mass media. While teenagers compose roughly 7
percent of the population, the percentage is down from a high of 10 in 1970.
Newspapers are not the only medium ignored by this age group.
Teenagers spend 18 percent less time with television and 17 percent less time
with radio than their adult counterparts. On an average weekday, 59 percent of
all teenagers do not even pick up the newspaper.
Concern that newspaper readership is declining is not new. Neither
is the debate over what role young people play in that decline. For many years,
researchers explained the fact that teens did not read the paper in terms of
their maturity: in short, that teenagers will acquire the habit as they grow
older and mature. This argument also proved problematic. 
Recent studies agree. One study conducted by the Simmons Market
Research Bureau found that in the last decade the proportion of 12 to
17-year-olds who reported reading a newspaper yesterday has fallen from 45 to 41
percent. This same 1988 study found that only 16 percent of 12 to 17-year-olds
read the newspaper every weekday..
Another study conducted by Georgia State University at about the
same time found a much higher 80 percent of high school juniors and seniors said
that they "typically" read the daily newspaper.
Cobb-Walgren found that most prominent reason given for not reading
the newspaper is the perception of the amount time and required. In short,
nonreaders had neither time nor interest. She also found that nonreaders have
parents who do not regularly read the newspapers.  It is also interesting
to note that both readers and nonreaders said television was overwhelmingly
their favorite source of information about world, national, state and city news
A 1990 study by the Times Mirror Center for the People and the
Press said, "Today's young Americans know less, care less, about the news and
public affairs than any generation of Americans in the past 50 years." The
study found that young people are only interested in sports news and issues that
directly effect their age group, such as the abortion issue. The students in
this study said that when compared with television, newspapers lacked compelling
images and reading the news was harder and took longer than watching it.
So the picture of newspaper readership among today's youth is not
rosy. Naturally, among those in the newspaper industry and those involved in
journalism education the question arises, "WhatDif anythingDcan be done about
it?" To answer this question, one must first look at past newspaper efforts
directed at youth and at studies done to determine their effect.
History Of Newspapers & Youth
American newspapers are both product and a part of daily life.
Those who read newspapers and those who publish them agree on what makes a
newspaper a "good" one. According Emery and Emery, "wherever journalists
gather, or opinion polls are taken, there is a remarkable consensus in
identifying the preeminent American newspapers." Newspapers that promote human
liberty and social progress are deemed most successful.  Working from the
power base of a private enterprise, such newspapers, in theory, operate on the
side of the public good. These dual goals are achieved by providing honest,
comprehensive coverage and the "courageous expression" of editorial opinion.
The best newspapers provide valuable information to their audiences, regardless
Several organizations have played a major role in the history and
development of newspapers. A few have devoted a significant proportion of their
efforts to youth. One of these, the Newspaper Association of America, is making
major changes in its youth programs. Before those changes are discussed, a
little background is needed.
History of ANPA/NAA
In 1887 the American Newspapers Publishers Association was formed
to serve as the trade association for the newspaper industry. The leaders of
the association held managerial posts on their newspapers or were publishers
primarily interested in business management. The organizers wanted a daily
newspaper trade association that would help obtain national advertising.
However, the ANPA also became involved in problems of labor relations, newsprint
supply, government mail rates and mechanical developments.
The NAA Foundation, was established as ANPA Foundation in 1961 by
the ANPA Board of directors. In 1992 the Foundation adopted the name: The
Newspaper Association of America Foundation. The foundation derives its
revenues from an endowment fund and is a 501(C)3 charitable organization.
One of the first projects undertaken in 1961 by the newly formed
foundation was to administer the Newspaper in Education programs. This program
evolved from local programs in various newspapers beginning in the 1890s to
national programs in the 1950s. In the mid-1950s, educators and newspaper
personnel called for a national study of how newspapers were being utilized in
the classroom. The direct result of this study was a set of inservice workshops
for teachers entitled "The Newspaper in the Classrooms of a Free Society." When
the Foundation took over this program, conferences and evaluation materials were
added to the teacher workshops program.
Most NIE programs target "children" rather that "youth." More
often than not they are used in a class designed to teach reading or social
studies rather than "journalism." Most elementary and even middle schools do
not have a journalism class or publications program. Journalistic writing and
publication production at this level is, at most, a unit of a week or two in the
language arts curriculum.
One exception to the "NIE is for elementary schools" dictum is a
curriculum guide developed at the University of Florida in 1991. The guide,
written for journalism classes from grades 6-12, provides hands-on experience by
having studies read and study the newspaper as a way of learning about
journalism. Every section includes activities that involve the newspaper. The
guide outlines how to work with the NIE coordinator at the local newspaper to
get the newspapers.
While NIE has always been a major focus of the NAA (ANPA)
Foundation, it was chartered to develop funding for several outreach programs.
The Foundation was to sponsor research projects, work with journalism educators,
hold professional advancement workshops, help to develop opportunities for
minorities in newspapering and direct activities in the strengthening of freedom
of speech and press. In the Foundation annual report for 1991-92, listed
four basic objectives:
1. Develop informed and intelligent newspaper readers
2. Enhance minority opportunity in newspapering
3. Develop and strengthen public understanding of a free press
4. Advance the professionalism of the press.
In March of 1995, a new Foundation mission statement was adopted:
"The Newspaper Association of America Foundation was
to advance informed and intelligent media use by all
citizens, especially young people;
and to encourage them to value the people's right to know
and their right to a free and
The mission statement indicates that the Foundations is "dedicated
to developing tomorrow's readers by encouraging them to acquire and value
information from newspapers and other media."
According to this new statement, the Foundation's programs target
students in elementary school through early college. It said that while the
foundation programs emphasize the use of newspapers by young people, the also
include the use and facility of other media as well.
The "new statement" also said that foundation programs are
concentrated in three major areas: 1.) Newspaper in Education, 2.) Newspaper
Content for Youth and 3.) Student Newspapering. This is a departure from two
years earlier when Foundation educational programs were targeted in two areas,
NIE and literacy. The "literacy focus" was dropped because several national
educational organizations were concentrating their efforts in this area.
At a June 1995 meeting of the Educational Services Committee, three
task forces were formed in the areas of NIE, Youth Content, and Student
Newspapering. Each was charged with creating a three-year plan, identifying a
role for that NAA Foundation "that is unique, non-duplicate and provides a
meaningful contribution to the industry." They were also asked to assess the
new media and student newspapering implications within their assigned areas.
The remainder of this paper will focus specifically on one of the
three NAA areas, Student Newspapering. Student newspapering refers to
newspapers produced by students in their schools. One of the media foundations,
The Freedom Forum, has conducted a major recent study in this area.
"Death by Cheeseburger"
In the past few years, a great deal of concern has been expressed
about the state of journalism education at the high school level. The Freedom
Forum took the lead, sponsoring several meetings and discussions, and,
ultimately, publishing a book in 1994 about what they found. That book
became the focus of a roundtable discussion between professional journalists,
high school students and their advisers in California. Excepts from the
transcripts of that meeting are printed below. F lix Guti rrez, Freedom Forum
vice president and executive director of the Pacific Coast Center, established
the rationale for the meeting:
"We have all had a concern about where journalism
going. The report, 'Death by Cheeseburger,' which The
Freedom Forum issued in April
1994, says that journalism education at the high school
level is alive but not
necessarily well. After we issued this report, we had an
upswing of interest among
journalism educators and people on the professional side
saying, 'Isn't there some way
we can work together to strengthen journalism education?'
If we're going to make a
difference, if we're going to really make an improvement,
it's going to be through
local connections, local cooperation and local
Speaking for the high school journalism advisers was Steve
O'Donoghue, founder of the at Fremont High School Media Academy in Oakland. He
had first proposed the roundtable as a way of establishing links between news
professionals and high school studentsDgroups that represent the present and
future of journalism.
"Some of us in scholastic journalism have been beating our
against the wall for several years trying to get the
profession to take more interest.
There was high interest at the collegiate level where there
was a natural feed for
interns and employers but, below that, and excepting some
fine individual programs and
efforts by individual journalists, there wasn't a
commitment by the profession. This is
where your manpower is for the future.
High school newspapers all over the country are
appearing less frequently. I remember when they cut some
metal-shop classes from
Oakland Public Schools. The people from the metal-shop
trades were down at those board
meetings. They were writing letters. They had an interest.
They were saying, 'Look,
we're getting employees out of this program. This is our
future.' High school
publications programs are interfered with every day, from
minor suggestions by the
principal about what should and shouldn't be running to
what I call `killing the
adviser.' When the kids publish things the administration
doesn't like, usually what
they do is they kill the adviser: `You're teaching five
periods of remedial reading
next year.' Or perhaps, if you're not tenured, you are not
teaching at all. And that is
Speaking from the newspaper industry perspective was Virgil L.
Smith, assistant to the Gannett Group President, Pacific Newspaper Group, former
publisher of The Stockton Record. He described a project that he had
"The Record needed to improve its image in the community,
needed to increase circulation in the community, and we
also needed to increase our
readership among young readers. In addition, the Stockton
Unified School District has
had many challenges in terms of resources. Two years ago, I
went to Don Bott's class
[Stagg High School] for a career day. I posed the idea to
Don about a partnership where
the newspaper would publish his newspaper and insert it
into our newspaper [for that
In May 1993 we invited all nine high schools in San
County to the newspaper. We outlined the program and one of
the key issues of the
program was that the newspapers had to be broadsheet. To
show our commitment, we
offered our top executives, meaning our executive editor,
advertising director and circulation director, to be a part
of the program.
The program that we came up with had four parts:
1. We would print their newspapers.
2. We would provide mentorship for them on a regular
basisDsessions on legal, libel and ethical issues,
photography, interviewing, newsroom
careers, presentation and graphic design, column
writing, and headlines Dthe issues
related to editorial.
3. We set up an advertising intern program because not
journalism students are interested in becoming
4. On Saturdays, the newspaper publishes guest editorials
other newspapers. To give students a voice, we
publish, on occasion, the best
editorials from the high school newspapers.
An offshoot of that program is a high school student news
These students publish their own newspaper, and they
address some pretty controversial
issues. For the newspaper, along with developing young
readers, we received tremendous
This meeting was typical of others held before and after
Cheeseburger was published. Media professionals and foundation personnel and
high school teachers all wanted to improve the quality of journalism education
afforded to students. Each had a different perspective. Teachers were
concerned about keeping their jobs and finding the funding needed for successful
programs. Newspaper people wanted to increase circulation, especially among
young readersDwith a commensurate increase in advertising revenue. Media
foundations and organizations have slightly different goals. They are concerned
with the strength and viability of journalism in general. They are willing to
devote time and money to programs that will assist them in their mission of
protecting free-enterprise journalism from outside forces, both political and
The final pages of Death by Cheeseburger lists 12 steps for
improving high school journalism programs. The first is that every high school
have a newspaper that publishes at least once a month. The next three steps
cover the diversity of the staff, teacher training and student freedom of
expression. The fifth "step" is reprinted in its entirety below:
News media should provide vigorous moral and material
the practice and teaching of journalism in high schools and
Every newspaper should take responsibility for the
well-beingDof school newspapers in its community. State
press associations and other
groups at the national level, should develop plans to
support scholastic journalism,
whether this is initiated through individual schools,
school systems or scholastic
In an earlier chapter of the book, an infograph tells
"How Professional Newspapers Help High Schools." The
information in the
graph comes from an American Society of Newspaper Editors
survey of 234
newspapers. That information (rearranged in from highest to
percent) follows: High School Journalism Seminars 41%
Printing/Sponsoring High School Newspapers 30
Minority Student Scholarships 24
Financial Aid for Projects 18
Mentor Programs 14
Other Recent Recommendations
Cheeseburger was not the only recent effort to enlist newspapers to
support high school journalism programs. In 1987, Julie Dodd prepared "The
Editors' and Publishers' Handbook for Helping High School Journalism Programs"
for the Journalism Education Committee of the Southern Newspaper Publishers
Association. This suggests ways newspapers can help high school journalism
1. Meeting the high school journalism teachers and
advisers in the area.
2. Providing guest speakers and tours of the newspaper
3. Publishing school newspapers or school pages in
4. Training high school journalism students and journalism
instructors and advisers.
5. Funding college courses for teachers and advisers.
6. Sponsoring a publication awards program and awards for
7. Funding scholarships.
8. Providing part-time student internships.
9. Contacting legislators and policy-makers in support of
In the summer of 1988, Mary Arnold published "A Great Opportunity:
A Study of Iowa High School Student Newspapers Published as a Page or Insert in
the Local Newspaper" for the Iowa Newspaper Foundation. This booklet described
how duties and responsibilities were divided between students and the commercial
newspapers. Suggestions for improving the relationship included:
1. Holding a workshop where student writing is critiqued
newspaper staffers and community standards and the
handling of controversy and
advertising and financial issues are discussed.
2. Sending students and teachers to journalism conferences
A similar list of recommendations was presented by the Newspapers
In Education task force of the NAA Foundation Student Services Committee during
the October 1995 meeting.
Table 1: NIE Suggested Programs for Newspaper Involvement
with High School Journalism
PROGRAMS HELD PRIMARILY AT THE NEWSPAPER:
Inform school administrators of your interest in helping with
high school journalism programs. Secure their cooperation.
Subscribe to the high school (and middle and grade school)
in your area.
Hold special tours of the newspaper office and plant for
When reporters need high school students as sources for a
encourage them the ask the school newspaper's staff for
Consider putting students on staff as correspondents from
schools. Give students photo and/or story credit when
materials are used in the paper.
Invite student newspaper staffers to work alongside one of
reporters, editors or business side personnel for a day or
Hold a get acquainted workshop and/or luncheon for high school
journalism teachers and advisers in the beginning of the
Hold an after-school or Saturday workshop for student
staffers to give them tips on writing stories, editing,
photography, selling ads, etc.
Make space available in the newspaper for school news written
Encourage student journalists to write guest columns for your
Set up a local youth advisory council for the newspaper.
PROGRAMS HELD PRIMARILY IN THE SCHOOLS:
Go to the schools and establish personal contacts with the
journalism teachers. Let them know you are available for
help. Encourage them to call
on your for advice.
Provide speakers for journalism classes. They can both
information and answer questions.
Offer to critique an issue or two of the school paper.
the critique be posted on the bulletin board in the
journalism lab at school. A guest
critique offers a fresh perspective.
Ask your reporters, photographers and other staff personnel to
acknowledge high school reporters and photographers at
school board meetings, athletic
evens, and other places where both are covering the news.
Provide scholarships for student newspaper staffers or their
to attend one of the summer workshop programs offered at
many university journalism
Establish an annual scholarship program for high school
plan to major in journalism in college.
Sponsor awards to be presented to outstanding school
your area schools.
Offer summer internships at the newspaper for high school
Be on the program at the state high school press association
conference. Invite high school teachers and students to be
on state press association
programs as well.
Discussion about the involvement of newspapers with student media
often revolves around partnerships. Partnerships with newspapers were the
subject for several of the AEJMC Scholastic Journalism Division papers.
Partnership programs require that newspapers and schools (and sometimes colleges
and universities as well) agree to work together to improve a student newspaper.
The newspaper provides facilities, equipment, training and funding for printing,
scholarships, internships, etc. The schools provide the students and their
teachers or advisers. Both find time in their normal working day and on
weekends for training and work sessions. Usually a student newspaper is
produced that is published by and/or in the newspaper.
Newspapers benefit from the ties they form with the schools and the
investment they make in future readership and potential employees. Students
benefit by the knowledge and experience gained from working with professionals.
The NAA Foundation Student Newspapering task force selected
partnerships as the most effective way for newspapers to work with student. A
proposal was advanced to:
"Identify newspaper/school partnerships that work. In
programs, students and teachers work in the newspaper plant
on either the business side
or newsroom. These programs should be recognized and
publicized as models for others
to follow. Letters to supervisors, newspaper articles and
award certificates are ways
to recognize participants. An national partnership
competition with prizes distributed
and winners recognized at the NIE national convention was
also suggested. The partners
should be encouraged to affiliate with area journalism
schools to strengthen the
partnership and assist with future training.
The NAA Foundation should establish seed grants to support
student newspapering partnerships. The purpose of the
partnerships is to revive or
strengthen high school newspapers. These grants can be
awarded to newspapers,
collegiate journalism programs and/or high schools. The
funds can be used to establish
or continue a partnership between/among newspapers and/or
programs and high schools.
Now that the historical context or background for newspapering and
youth has been laid out, a look at research that examines and evaluates these
efforts is in order.
Newspaper & Student Newspaper Research
A great deal of research for and about newspapers in general is
available. As is to be expected, media researchers are not all of a common
voice. There are those who are very critical today's newspapers. Cultural
materialists, for instance, argue that since the United States is a capitalistic
nation, the newspapers reflect the ideology of the "owners." They argue with
Raymond Williams that an ideology is "...a relatively formal and articulated
system of meanings, values, and beliefs, or a kind that can be abstracted as a
'world view' or a 'class outlook." It is thus a frame of reference by which
individuals in a culture understand their experience. Newspapers present a
direct way of portraying ideology. That the newspapers in this country reflect
a "private enterprise" ideology is a natural consequence of the system by which
the news media operate and the larger systems of school, church, work and so on,
in which media production takes place.
Similarly attacked for its ideological bias is most media research.
Any attempt to understand the media from within must necessarily reflect and/or
perpetuate "private enterprise" ideology. Research that is sponsored by and/or
for the media industry is a form of "ideology in operation" and a tool for
managing and promulgating it.
This caveat is useful one; one must always look below the surface
of words to determine the goals and aims of those who utter them. A healthy
skepticism is often a researcher's best tool. Most of the information available
on newspapers is provided by or for newspapers themselves. However, to negate
the value of looking at what is happening in newspapers today simply because the
voices that are speaking the loudest and most often are "media insiders" is
Research into media production has shown that newspapers operate in
an environment characterized by a high degree of public exposure and are subject
to numerous, sometimes conflicting, demands from society, from their economic
and commercial supports and partners and from their audience. The main
goals that have been identified are:
1. Making profits for owners or shareholders
2. Serving some cultural, social or political cause or ideal
3. Maximizing and pleasing audiences
4. Maximizing advertising revenue
Five basic types of studies (both administrative and academic) of
the newspaper business have been conducted: readership, circulation,
management, typography/makeup and readability. By far, the most common type
has been the readership study. Readership research has been expanded in the
past several decades to include: reader profiles, item-selection studies,
reader-nonreader studies, uses and gratification studies and editor-reader
Reader profiles provide a demographic summary of the readers of a
particular publication. This information can be used to focus the contents of
publication, prepare advertising promotions and increase subscriptions. Lately
researchers have added pyschographic studies and lifestyle segmentation studies
to construct reader profiles. Both go beyond the traditional demographic
portrait and describe readers in terms of what they think or how they live. They
are also used to identify types of readers.
The studies on the youth market, cited earlier in this paper are
all readership studies. They have looked at which youth read the newspapers and
which parts of the paper they read.
Another kind of study that is often utilized is the content
analysis. Such studies focus on the materials found in the media rather than
the people who do (or do not) read them. Content analysis is a way of
determining what messages are available to readers. These studies show which
messages are found in a given body of a publication or set of publications at
one or more points in time.
Student Newspaper Research
Researchers who look at student newspapers do not "speak with one
voice" either. Three of those voices combined in the recent Journalism Kids Do
Better This book digests the research done by the three in the areas of
the role of journalism education in the school, publication financing and
advertising, and legal issues. While there are some references to the
supporting role played by the various newsmedia and media foundations,
especially in the bibliography/resources section, the role of the
professional newsmedia in relation to student newspapering is not discussed in
The research presented in this book does a thorough job of
explaining how students benefit from their participation in high school
journalism. In Chapter 2, Jack Dvorak makes the case the journalism students
make better high school and college grades than their peers with no newspaper or
yearbook staff experience. The have higher standardized test scores. They
write better. They value their high school journalism experiences more than
their English classes. Finally, they are the "doers" in their schools who are
more involved in co-curricular and community activities.
Now that that both the historical and research literature on
newspaper involvement in student newspapering have been reviewed, the specific
questions for this particular study must be framed. If the purpose of this
study is to suggest ways that newspapers can become involved with student
newspapering, a content analysis of recent publications dealing with student
newspapers should provide a list of suggestions from knowledgeable sources.
Thus the research questions become:
1. What examples of cooperation between student newspapers
the professional press have already been reported
student newspapering literature.
2. Could these examples serve as models for future
newspaper/student newspapering projects?
Over the past decade, messages contained in news media have become
increasingly popular research topics in both the academic and private sectors.
Studies have catalogued the characteristics of a given body of communication
content at one or more points in time. These studies, called content analyses,
identify what exists..
An ERIC search reveals three major sources for articles and papers
on the topic of student newspapering. All three are scholastic journalism
magazines published by national organizations. All three are printed quarterly
and are membership benefits for belonging to the sponsoring organization. They
1. Quill & Scroll (Q&S)is the official publication of
Scroll, The International Honorary Society for High
School Journalists, located at The
University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa.
2. Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET) is
official publication of the Journalism Education
Association, located at Kansas State
University in Manhattan, Kansas.
3. Student Press Review (SPR) is published by the Columbia
Scholastic Press Association, located at Columbia
University in New York City.
Selecting an appropriate sample from the population was a simple
task. Four issues of each of the magazines are published each year. Looking at
the most recent 20 issues (5 years) of each provides an overview of recent
For the unit of analysis, each of the issues contains from 8 to 12
articles. Regular features such as book reviews and columns written by officers
or headquarters personnel are also included with each. For the purposes of this
study, each article or column was be counted as one unit. Where briefs are
organized into a column, each brief on a different subject is counted as a
The existing scholastic journalism literature also provides a model
for constructing the categories of content to be analyzed. In August of 1990,
Mary Arnold presented a paper entitled "Mapping the Territory: A Conceptual
Model of Scholastic Journalism" at the AEJMC conference. This paper derived
a model of scholastic journalism that was comprised of seven conceptual
categories and four supporting categories. These are the categories that form
the analytic framework for this current study. The conceptual categories are:
1. Law and Ethics: This category includes freedom of the
and other First Amendment issues along with the
principles of ethical decision making.
2. The History of Scholastic Media: This category
articles about the events and people that played
major roles in scholastic journalism
in the United States.
3. Cultural Diversity: This category includes articles
the cultural diversity of the student body, the
surrounding community, state, nation
and the world.
4. Technology: This category includes articles about the
information age, the new media, telecommunications,
digital imagery and electronic
5. Economics: This category includes articles about
school budgets, fund raising and other issues of
6. Media Content: This category includes articles about
verbal and visual elements in a publication or
presentation. Included here are writing
,reporting, interviewing, graphics, photography, etc.
7. Pedagogy: This category includes articles about
Found here are lesson plans, new curricular and
scheduling issues and new ways of
testing and evaluating student work. Reviews of
journalism books and textbooks are
also included here.
The next four are the support categories for the seven conceptual
8. The School & Community: This category includes
the community influences in schools such as school
boards, parental support groups,
school bond issues and taxes. Articles about the
school administrators are also
included in this category.
9. Colleges & Universities: This category includes
about teacher preparation, curricular innovation,
continuing education opportunities
and other programs furnished by colleges and
10. Established Media: This category includes articles
media support in the form of scholarships and other
awards, mentor programs, resource
persons, internships, partnerships and other programs
involving professional and
11. Scholastic Journalism Organizations: This category
articles about the organizations that promote and
defend high school journalism.
Articles about contests, awards, scholarships,
conferences are included. Columns
written by the officers of the organizations are
included here as well.
In quantifying the analysis, each article counts as one. This is
the same system used by Arnold in her earlier study. Because the same
categories and procedures were duplicated in this current study, a pilot study
was not conducted.
Table 2: Content Analysis of Articles in 3 Scholastic
Journalism Publications by Topic
School & Community
Colleges & Universities
Professional News Media
The magazine articles were analyzed, and each was coded according
to the established content categories. The results are presented on Table 2
When the totals for the three publications are combined and
converted to percentages (See Chart 1 below.), we find that the largest
percentage of articles are those that have to do with scholastic organizations.
This is not surprising, since all three are published by such organizations and
are the only source that members have for information about conferences,
contests, awards, officers and other organizational business.
It is also to be expected that media content be second. That tips
on pedagogy or how to teach students about the content would come in third is
also logical. These three comprise almost two-thirds of the articles in the
Of the 554 articles in the three magazines, 61 had to do with the
news media. They are few in number, comprising only 13 percent of the total
articles. As shown on Chart 2 that follows, most of the articles appeared in
Student Press Review. These were found primarily in the "Overview" news briefs
Table 3: Program Suggestions from Content Analysis,
SNPA, NIE, ASNE and Stockton Record
Tours, Shadow a Pro, Careers Information
Stingers, Internships, Youth Board, Columnists
Get acquainted sessions/luncheons
Stringers, Internships, Columnists
yFor the Whole Program
Critiques, Contest judges
Awards, Scholarships, Grants
Subscribe to the student newspaper
Print the student newspaper
Since the articles are so few in number, it is easy to look at each
of them individually to determine what kinds of examples and suggestions they
contain. A brief synopsis of each of the 61 is found in the appendix to this
paper. Next these articles were grouped by subject with the NIE suggestions
from page 17 the SNPA Booklet programs from page 16 the ASNE programs from page
15 and the Stockton Record programs from page 14. The results are shown on
Table 3 above.
Chart 3 that follows shows that the program most often suggested
was for newspapers to provide speakers and trainers. Next came presenting
awards, scholarships and grants to both students and teachers. Providing career
information by having students take tours of the newspaper plant, spending a job
shadowing one of the newspaper employees and giving out brochures came third.
Sponsoring training and workshops for teachers came in fourth.
However, the number of cites in this analysis is not necessarily
representative of the program's importance or viability. It is merely and
indication of how often a subject was suggested. Greater frequency can indicate
"more important," but not always. For instance, some programs (i.e., teacher
internships) have surfaced recently making the number of cites relatively low.
These new programs may prove more successful over the long run than those that
have been around for years.
Conclusions and Recommendations.
Industry insiders and media pundits agree that the future of
newspapers (as we know them, printed on paper) is uncertain. Because of the
challenges from cable TV, a raft of new magazines and the Internet, newspapers
are "segmenting markets" and moving away from the "general circulation"
One "market" that has been targeted is young readers. For many
years, newspapers centered their educational services programs (such as NIE) on
children and ignored youth. They believed, as did some researchers, that young
people who did not read the newspaper would acquire the habit as they matured.
Recent evidence has shown that this strategy has disappointing results. Now
newspapers are courting the "youth market." For scholastic journalism educators
the words, "It's about time!" are coupled with "I hope it's not too late."
As ironic as it may seem, the best hope for improving youth
readership may lie outside the newspaper itself. Young people do watch TV and,
when available, interact with computers. Newspapers need to consider these
electronic media as they reach out to students and student newspapers.
When newspapers reach out to students and their newspapers, several
different groups benefit. Those benefits (derived from the literature review)
are outlined on the table that follows.
Table 4: Possible Direct and Indirect Benefits Derived
from Newspaper/Student Newspaper Partnerships
Benefits to Professional Newspapers
Increased advertising revenue
Good will in community
Better ties into the schools as an news source/resource
Benefits to Student Newspapers
A vocal and visible public-policy advocate for the program
Financial and/or educational benefits from:
Training for advisers and students
Printing the newspaper
Scholarships, awards and recognition
Internship or stringer salaries or free lance honoraria
Benefits to the Newspaper Industry & Media Foundations
Stronger and more viable newspapers and audiences
Youth who understand and are committed to "free enterprise"
Benefits to Universities & Scholastic Press Associations
Potential students who are trained and interested in journalism
Potential graduate students from the teacher/adviser pool
Stronger ties to the journalism profession
Increased activity with alumni and potential benefactors
A lengthy list of program suggestions for newspapers and student
newspapers, media foundations and scholastic journalism organizations was
gathered from the literature review and content analysis. Different programs
are appropriate at different levels. Each of the four levels (newspaper,
student newspaper, media foundation, scholastic journalism organizations) is
presented on Tables 5-8 below.
The first level, professional newspapers, has the longest list.
Newspapers can target one or more of these programs. Perhaps the most useful
suggestion is to combine several from two (or more) levels into a partnership
program. These suggestions become a sort of "buffet table" or smorgasbord from
which to choose. It is not suspect that any one partnership will implement them
Table 5: Student Newspaper Recommendations to be
Implemented by Newspapers
Program Recommendations at the Newspaper Level:
Work at the local level. Set a target school, district, county
Be an advocate by going to policy makers such as the principal,
district superintendent, school board and legislature to let them know that you
support student newspapers. Carefully outline the extent of your editorial and
Write and publish editorials and columns in support of the
newspapers in your community
Use your student contacts as sources for stories and
the schools. Regularly print school news and columns written
Publish guest editorials from high school student newspapers.
Help students to establish an on-line news bureau that connects
with your newspaper and other student newspapers.
Set up a youth advisory council for your newspaper. It can help
critique your paper, provide ideas for future stories and/or
changes. These students
are inside the school every day and can provide useful
information to reporters.
Host luncheons, get acquainted tours and training sessions for
Print the student newspaper free of charge. Bring the students
plant, and take them through the steps as a paper is printed.
Provide computers, modems, cameras and other equipment and help
the students on how to use it.
Provide scholarships for students and teachers to attend
and/or courses and conferences held by state and national
Provide college scholarships for students who plan to major in
journalism in college.
Hire students and teachers as interns in the newsroom and on the
business side. Teachers and many students are looking for
employment in the summer.
Pay your employees when they are working as program mentors.
employees will understand this is to be taken seriouslyDthat
you mean business.
Sponsor student awards and awards banquets. Attend the banquets
present the awards in person.
Subscribe to the student newspapers in your area. Keep them in
newsroom and encourage your staff to read them.
Put top executives in charge. This will secure cooperation from
the rest of your employees. Have your newsroom and business side personnel:
Speak to classes about their own careers, duties, training and
challenges. Students enjoy hearing "war stories" from the
"journalists in the
Critique student newspapers. Offer fresh perspective in the form
suggestions and recommendations. Be as positive as possible.
Assist and acknowledge student reporters, photographers at places
both are covering the news.
Serve as mentors who go to one school at least once a week to
assist and train students.
Be on the program at the state and national scholastic journalism
The following chart gives suggestions for students and their
teachers to implement in their own classrooms or journalism labs. Again,
student newspapers should select those programs which are most appropriate
and/or necessary for their own situations. Every school cannot implement every
suggestion, but students and their teachers should study all of them before
choosing. Schools may also give this table and the one above to their local
newspapers, and together the two can select those that fit their situation.
Table 6: Student Newspaper Recommendations to
be Implemented by the Student Newspapers Themselves
Program Recommendations at the Student Newspaper Level:
Subscribe to the local newspaper. Keep it in your classroom,
encourage students to read, analyze and use it as a source of ideas and
Set aside a specific time during your school day or on weekends
to work with your partner. Be ready when your partners arrive.
Acquaint speakers and mentors with school policies and procedures
and with the level of your students' interest and experiences before they
arrive. Give them enough information so that they are prepared for what will
(an will not) happen during their visit(s).
Plan with, train and prepare your students so that the
partnership can be productive for them
Keep building and district personnel and the newspaper executives
informed of the progress of the partnerships. Written letters of thanks that
outline strengths and challenges can encourage continued support and
The next level is national in scope. If the industry (or its
foundations) tackle issues on this level, it is far easier for schools and
newspapers to complete their tasks on the local levels. Providing tested models
for others to use means that local groups do not have to "reinvent the wheel"
for each program.
Make certain that this information is available to schools,
newspapers, state and local press associations and scholastic journalism
organizations. Make it available in a variety of forms. Include "ink on paper"
media such as brochures, pamphlets and news releases. Also include
"electronic" media such as videos, faxes and web pages and bulletin boards on
the Internet. Publish and "broadcast" all of these as widely as possible.
Table 7: Student Newspaper Recommendations to be
Implemented by Newspaper Industry/Media Foundations
Program Recommendations at the Newspaper Industry/Media
Launch a systematic and sustained effort to better understand the
youth market and how to serve it. Make this information widely available.
Track and assess the efforts of other media (on-line services,
cable, Channel One) to court the youth market. Find out what works, what
doesn't. Make this information widely available.
Create model programs for the newspaper industry similar to those
used by other media to increase youth awareness.
Follow the lead of newspapers that provide opportunities and
develop models for linking schools to the Internet by and connecting teachers
Provide funds for grants for pilot projects and for awards to
recognize model projects to improve student newspapers.
The final level is that of the scholastic journalism organization.
Most of these organizations are located at colleges and universities. Charged
with providing programs and services for high school journalism teachers and
students, these organizations can link the other partners together.
Scholastic journalism organizations sponsor conferences, workshops,
contests, newsletters, electronic mailing lists and Web pages for students and
teachers in journalism programs across each state. Some organizations are
regional, serving several states; three are national.
Table 8: Student Newspaper Recommendations to be
Implemented by Scholastic Journalism Organizations and
Program Recommendations at the Scholastic Journalism
Organizations/ University Level
Be an advocate by going to policy makers such as the principals,
district superintendents, school boards and the legislature to let them know the
educational advantages of student publications.
Assist newspapers and professional press associations in setting
up partnership, internship, mentor, scholarship programs
Invite newspaper personnel to speak at your conferences and
Ask to be on the program at state and national press association
conferences to address the importance of student newspapers and the advantages
of the partnership programs
Establish an on-line news bureau that connects them with your
organization and other student newspapers.
These lists while lengthy are not exhaustive. They are a
compilation of ideas and program suggestions for improving student newspapers in
high schools by linking them with the newspaper industry. In these changing
times, they are a series of answers to the question asked by journalism
educators and professional journalists: "Isn't there some way we can work
together to strengthen student newspapers?"
SUMMARIES OF NEWS MEDIA ARTICLES IN SCHOLASTIC JOURNALISM
These are grouped by topic:
NEWSPAPERS COME TO SCHOOL
1. Willie E. Wooten, "Local Media Open Doors by Supporting
Journalism for Minorities," Communication: Journalism
Education Today, 29:1 (Fall 1995),
This article highlights newspapers and media personnel from across
that are working to improve the status of scholastic
journalism. Newspapers that publish
student newspapers and articles, newspapers in inner city
schools, apprentice and schol
arship programs, minority workshops and the JEA Multicultural
Commission are highlighted.
Special emphasis is given to minority issues.
2. Carolyn Jones Howard, "CSPAA Notes Column: Utilizing the
your journalism classroom," Quill & Scroll, 67:1
(October/November 1992), 22.
Based on experiences gained from a partnership between Time
magazine and her
school, this adviser offers tips on how to enable the
journalism professional to make a
significant contribution when he or she visits your classroom.
TEACHERS/STUDENTS WORK AT PAPERS
3. Dennis Cripe, "Interns Add 'Class' To State's Newsrooms," Quill &
68:3 (February/March 1994), 8-9.
The executive director of the Indiana High School Press Association
the first year of an program where nine high school teachers
spent one month as paid
interns in local newspapers in Indiana. He describes the
program and benefits to both
teachers and newspapers.
4. Melissa McIntosh, "What I Did Over Summer Vacation," Quill &
(February/March 1994), 10-12.
One of the nine Indiana high school journalism teachers who served
intern at the Louisville Courier-Journal humorously describes
her internship experience
and how what she learned will make her a more empathetic
5. Warren Kent, "Moonlighting as a Stringer," Communication:
Education Today, 29:2 (Winter 1995), 5, 18.
A high school teacher and newspaper adviser works part-time for the
Creek Enquirer as a sports writing, covering high school
athletics. His students look
forward to reading the stories he writes, and a high
percentage of his students (7 out of
30) have gone on to journalism careers. "And I truly believe
my working on the newspaper
had something to do with it."
6. Dean Hume, "Interested Students Can String, Too," Communication:
Journalism Education Today, 29:2 (Winter 1995), 5-20.
A high school journalism teacher and adviser describes a
with the local newspaper where 20 students cover five
different varsity sports at five
county schools for the local daily newspaper. "I have seen
the program work at two very d
ifferent papers. Smaller papers provide internship
possibilities and may sports writers
advise students to start out at the local level."
HINTS FROM THE PROS
7. Donna McGuire, "Newspaper Reporter: Everyone starts as a
Communication: Journalism Education Today, 28:1 (Fall 1994),
An education and general assignment reporter for the Kansas City
Star gives a
series of hints for young reporters. She calls it, "What I
wish beginning reporters all
knew." It includes hints on interviewing, research, being
prepared for contingencies,
writing and editing.
8. John Moore, "Creating Winning Picture Stories," Communication:
Education Today, 25:3 (Spring 1992), 20-22.
An Associated Press photographer tells students about the three
ingredients for a picture story: an interesting subject shot
with a narrow focus, good
photography accompanied by tight editing, and strong page
design with a dominant photo.
9.-21. Jim Marra, Contributing Editor, "The Building Blocks of
Communication: Journalism Education Today, 25:1 (Fall 1991),
This special advertising issue presents the practice of advertising
professional perspective with high school journalism
applications. The authors of the
issue are now college professors; all have been advertising
professionals. The articles
(listed below) cover a range of interests from competitions to
the lifestyles of ad agency
Jon P. Wardrip Learning About Advertising"
Susan Schoebel "Addressing Social Issues"
Tom Duncan "How to Sell a Campaign, Not Just and Ad"
Lee Wenthe "Teaching Advertising"
Mary Alyce Shaver "Selling Your Newspaper"
Jim Avery "Competition in Advertising"
Jim Marra "How to Find Meanings in Ads"
Billy I. Ross &
Keith F. Johnson "The Numbers Level Off"
Henry Hager "The Greatest Show on Earth?"
John Sweeney "Life in the Advertising Creative Department"
William Donnelly "Media Planning"
22. Donna Manfull, "YOUTHviews: A Resource From The Gallup Poll For
Publications," Quill & Scroll, 69:3 (February/March 1995)4-7.
A high school newspaper and yearbook adviser presents ways to use
found in The George Gallup Youth Survey in student
publications. She discusses two books
and a 10-issue-per-year newsletter YOUTHviews. Prior to the
first issue of this
newsletter, published in September of 1993, this information
on America's youth had only
been available from the Associated Press.
Role Models/ Career Guides:
23. Alice Klement, "Newspaper Coach Aims To Get Reporters Past
Thinking," Student Press Review, 71:1 (Fall 1995), 20-21.
A newspaper writing coach for the past 5 years has been in more
than a dozen
newsrooms. Her goal is to help reporter get past formula
thinking and writing. She
offers advice on how teachers can coach their students to be
better writers by listening
to them rather than trying to 'fix' writing.
24. Carolina Lightcap, "Is That a Fact," Student Press Review, 66:3
1991), 28-33, 39.
As Research Editor at Vanity Fair, Cynthia Cotts' jobDand the job
of the five
research associates on the staffDis to verify every singe fact
in the magazine. No matter
how trivial, all text considered "factual" is checked. The
article contains a detail flow
chart of the editorial path of a story. She offers advice and
lists resources used.
25. Carolina Lightcap, "T te- -T te with David Walters, Art Director
Premier Magazine," Student Press Review, 66:2 (Winter 1991),
This profile tells the story of the life, career, and graphic
a magazine art director. He advises students to have a
blueprint, an architectural plan
for the magazine. "We've built a certain brand identity; we
have an audience that knows
the magazine and buys it regularly."
26. Rod Vahl, "He Draws Cartoons To Promote Social Justice," Quill &
66:3 (February/March 1992), 4-6.
This profile of Bill Day, cartoonist for the Detroit Free Press
highlights of his life, career and how his commitment to
social justice has influenced
27. Rod Vahl, "A Pro Looks Within Himself," Communication:
Education Today, 25:3 (Spring 1992), 10-12.
This personality profile of a photojournalist tells about his
career from his
roots in high school journalism through a series of jobs and
newspaper assignments to his
current position on the Quad Cities Times. The article also
includes six of his award
winning photos and his comments about them.
28. Joline Guti rrez Kruger, "Forever a Yearbook Editor,"
Journalism Education Today, 29:1 (Fall 1995), 7-8.
A features editor and columnist from the Albuquerque Tribune, tells
scholastic journalism played an important role in her choice
to become a journalist. She
says that journalism was her way out of an inner-city school
where "the most we could home
for was to get out alive and with enough skills to pump gas or
29. Mar!a-Christine Buehner, "Persistence Pays Off for Court
Communication: Journalism Education Today, 29:1 (Fall 1995),
Njeri Fuller, a court reporter at the Savannah News-Press tells of
experiences as a high school and college students and how they
helped her to become a
journalist. She says that "young people need to know that
they can do it. I don't want
people to think that I'm the only one. There are many African
American, Latino and Asian
students who are excelling in different areas."
30. Sonya Roberts-Woods, "Journalism Guides Student Toward Goals"
Communication: Journalism Education Today, 29:1 (Fall 1995),
This article tells the story of a student who is working for a
part-time and going to North Texas Community College. "I
enjoy being able to work with
classmates, further my education and meet new people," said
Lisa Nunley. My long-term
goals are to work on a major newspaper doing design and layout
and a little writing on the
31. "Overview Column: Scholarship for Minority Journalists,"
Review, 66:3 (Spring 1991), 5.
Announcement that the Knight-Ridder Inc. Scholarship Program will
$20,000 four-year scholarship and a paid internship to two
minority high school seniors
who show academic achievement and are interested in
journalism. Applicants must be
sponsored by the Knight-Ridder newspaper in their community.
Dow Jones Newspaper Fund
32.-41. Announcements of the Dow Jones Newspaper Fund's National
Journalism Teacher of the Year for each of the five years in
Student Press Review and
Quill & Scroll. The winner is also announced each year during
a JEA/NSPA convention and
featured in JEA's Newswire.
42.-46. Dow Jones Newspaper Fund Program Grants announced as briefs
"Overview Column" of the Student Press Review, Once each year,
in the Spring issue.
1. Teacher FellowshipsDGrants to selected universities to be
fellowships to inexperienced high school journalism
teachers who want training in
increasing staff diversity, understanding and teaching
press freedom and desktop
publishing. A approximately 35 teachers receive
fellowships of up to $500 each annually.
2. Intensive Journalistic Writing InstituteDA grant to Indiana
University of $15,000 for the Intensive Journalistic
Writing Institute where high school
teachers will design academic (advanced placement)
courses that employ journalistic
3. National High School Journalism Teacher of the YearD$3,000
scholarships for students of the award winning teachers.
An additional $6,500 is
allocated to promote the program through travel and
registration for the Teacher of the
Year at newspaper industry and academic conferences.
4. Minority High School Journalism WorkshopsD$125,000 in
operate 32 workshops at colleges and universities across
the United States.
5. Summer Workshop Writing CompetitionD$8,000 for scholarships
best student writers from the high school journalism
workshops for minorities.
47. "Overview Column: Dow Jones Announces New Director," Student
67:4 (Summer 1992), 4.
Richard S. Holden was appointed as executive director of the Dow
Newspaper Fund. Holden is a 19-year veteran of The Wall
Street Journal. Linda Waller, a
12-year veteran of Gannett Newspapers was appointed deputy
48-49. "Overview Column: Dow Jones Publishes Career Guide For
Student Press Review 68:4 (Summer 1993), 5.
The Newspaper Fund announced the release of Newspapers, Diversity &
revised and redesigned career booklet replacing the Journalism
Career Guide for
Minorities. (Similar announcements appear in this column in
subsequent years for new
50.-52. "Overview Column: Dow Jones Publishes Journalism Career and
Scholarship Guide," Student Press Review, 66:3 (Summer
This annual guide lists scholarships and college journalism program
information for the United States. (Similar announcements
appear in this column in
subsequent years for new editions.)
53. Bruce Konkle, "Review: 'Death by Cheeseburger,'" Student Press
70:3 (Spring 1995), 31.
A review of the book that says that Cheeseburger accomplishes what
it set out
to do. It gives readers insights into scholastic journalism
through features and
informational graphics. It gives readers vignettes that help
to tell some of the stories
of high school journalism in the 1990s and beyond.
54. Judith Hines, "Stepping Out in Front," Student Press Review,
One of the Freedom Forum organizers of Death By Cheeseburger: High
Journalism in the 1990s and Beyond, offers advice to the
leaders in the high school media
on how to enlist local journalists as supporters and mentors.
55. "Overview Column: ANPA Foundation Announces New Vice
Student Press Review, 65:2 (Winter 1990), 8.
An announcement that Rosalind Stark succeeds Judith Hines as
director of the
ANPA Foundation. She will oversee the organizations'
Newspaper in Education, literary and
minority affairs programs and will direct Foundation efforts
in support of the First Am
endment at its journalism education projects.
56. "Overview Column: Facts About Newspapers published by the
Press Review, 65:3 (Spring 1990), 4-5.
Announcement of the availability of annual statistical summary
the American Newspaper Publishers Association as a service to
the newspaper business and
to the general public.
57. "Overview Column: Trade Associations Unify," Student Press
(Summer 1992), 4.
Announcement that the American Newspaper Publishers Association and
Newspaper Advertising Bureau, the two largest trade
associations, united to July 1 to form
the Newspaper Association of America.
58. "Overview Column: Foundation Published Collection On Free
(Summer 1993), 4.
Announcement the Newspaper Association of America Foundation pushed
Americans Have Said about Freedom of Expression," a collection
of quotations, documents,
and court comments from colonial times to the present. The
materials were collected by
Louis E. Ingelhart, professor emeritus, Ball State University,
Task Force On Minorities
59. "Overview Column: New Chair: Task Force on Minorities in the
Business," Student Press Review, 65:2 (Winter 1990), 9.
Gerald Garcia, editor and publisher of The Knoxville Journal, will
Task Force on Minorities in the Newspaper Business. The Task
for is a coalition of 42
national and regional newspaper associations that was
established in 1985 with the overall
mission of increasing opportunities for minorities in the
60. "Overview Column: Task Force offers guides on working with
youth," Student Press Review, 66:2 (Winter 1991), 5.
Two guides are available to help newspapers make special approaches
teenagers. They are "Making the Difference: Developing
Relationships Between Newspapers
and High Schools: and "Journal High: News on the High School
Front." Both are models of
how student newspapers can be published as part of the local
1st Amendment Congress
61. "Overview Column: First Amendment Congress Sends Message On
Expression," Student Press Review, 65:3 (Spring 1990), 4.
"The Message to Educators and Parents" was mailed to 30,000 school
administrators, teachers, parent teacher and scholastic press organizations this
march to remind them of the importance of respecting free expression in high
schools. The message, distributed by the First Amendment Congress, is the
fourth in a series and also will appear in high school journalism publications,
educational magazines and periodicals.
 J. T. Johnson, "New Education for Journalists," Neiman
Reports, Fall 1994, 65.
 Al Neuharth, Confessions of an S.O.B. (New York:
 Al Neuharth, Chairman of the Freedom Forum, in a
speech delivered at the Reagan Library and Museum in Simi Valley, California,
March 21. 1995
 Neuharth, 3.
 Neuharth, 2.
 Neuharth, 3.
 Cathleen Criner, The Double Whammy: New Media and
Kids, Paper presented at Interactive Newspapers '96 conference, March 1996.
 Criner, 2.
 Criner, 4.
 Criner, 6-7.
 Newspapers in Education, a Newspaper Association of
America Foundation program is discussed later in this paper.
 Criner 7.
 New Audiences Initiatives, New Directions for News,
Posted on Web page ([log in to unmask]), Feb. 8, 1996.
 New Audiences Initiatives, 3.
 Cathy J. Cobb-Walgren, "Why Teenagers Do Not 'Read
All About It,'" Journalism Quarterly 67:2 (Summer 1990): 340.
 1989 Study Conducted for the Newsprint Information
Committee by Simmons Market Research Bureau.
 Lawrence B. Lain, "Steps Toward a Comprehensive Model
of Newspaper Readership," Journalism Quarterly 63 (Spring 1986): 69-74.
 Leo Bogart, "Today's Teenagers: Tomorrow's Readers,"
Unpublished Manuscript, April 1989.
 Cobb-Walgren, 343.
 Cobb-Walgren, 347.
 Cobb-Walgren, 343.
 Times Mirror Center for the People and the Press.
the Age of Indifference: A Study of Young Americans and How they View the News.
Washington DC, June 28, 1990.
 Michael and Edwin Emery, The Press and America: An
Interpretive History of the Mass Media, Seventh Edition (Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992), 541.
 Edwin Emery, History of the American Newspaper
Publisher's Association (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press: 1950).
Updated in "ANPA's First 100 Years," Presstime (May 1987), 28.
 Mission Statement of Newspaper Association of America
Foundation, Adopted in March, 1995.
 History of the Newspaper in Education Program,
American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Reston, Virginia, 1992.
 Julie E. Dodd, Using Newspapers to Teach Journalism: A
Curriculum Development and Renewal Project Developed by the University of
Florida for the Florida Department of Education, (Tampa, Florida: The Tampa
Tribune for the Florida Department of Education, 1991), 1.
 Emery and Emery, 514.
 Newspaper Association of America Foundation: Report
for 1991-92, Newspaper Association of America Foundation, Reston, Virginia,
 Minutes of Newspaper Association of America Foundation
Trustees Meeting, March, 1995.
 Minutes of Newspaper Association of America
Foundation Educational Services Committee, June 8, 1995.
 Death by Cheeseburger: High School Journalism in the 1990s
and Beyond (Arlington Virgina: The Freedom Forum, 1994)
 F_lix Guti_rrez, "An Action Plan For Improving High
School Journalism," (Roundtable discussion held at the Freedom Forum Pacific
Coast Center in Oakland, California, Feb. 10, 1995).
 Death By Cheeseburger: High School Journalism in the
1990s and Beyond, Arlington, Virginia: The Freedom Forum, 1994), 147.
 Given the present concern over the state of student
newspapering, common sense indicates that these percentages are far too high.
This was not a scientifically designed or conducted study, and that those who
sponsored some sort of high school program were most apt to complete the
questionnaire and return it.
 Julie E. Dodd, Editors' and Publishers' Handbook for
Helping High School Journalism Programs (Southern Newspaper Publishers
 Mary P. Arnold, A Great Opportunity: A Study of Iowa
High School Student Newspapers Published as a Page or Insert in the Local
Newspaper (Iowa City, Iowa: Iowa High School Press Association, 1988).
 See: Lisa Minder, "The Whole Elephant: A Case Study
of a High School Newspaper and University Partnership," (paper presented to the
Scholastic Journalism Division at the convention of the Association for
Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Kansas City Mo., August 1993.)
and Eleanor Novek, "Newsmaking, a Tool for Self-Determination: Urban Secondary
School Journalism Students Publish a Community Newspaper," (paper presented to
the Secondary Education Division at the Convention of the Association for
Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Montreal, Canada, August 1992)
and Mary Arnold and Njeri Fuller, "When It all Began: Journalism Minority
Recruiting and High School Students," (paper presented to the Secondary
Education Division at the Convention of the Association for Education in
Journalism and Mass Communication, Montreal, Canada, August 1992).
 Minutes of the January 1996 Chicago Meeting of the
NAA Foundation Student Services Committee.
 Raymond Williams, Marxism and Literature (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1977), 109.
 Stephen W. Littlejohn, Theories of Human
Communication, Third Edition (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing
Company, 1989) 260-1.
 Dennis McQuail and Sven Windahl, Communication Models
for the Study of Mass Communication, Second Edition (London: Longman Group,
 McQuail, 161.
 Item selections are used to determine who reads
specific parts of the paper. Reader-nonreader studies attempt to describe
nonreaders by means of traditional demographic variables. They also attempt to
identify the reasons for not reading the newspaper. Uses and gratification
studies determine the motives that lead to newspaper reading and the personal
and psychological rewards that result from it. Editor-reader comparisons
compares answers to questions on certain topics between groups of editors and
their readers. Wimmer, 264-6.
 Wimmer, 263.
 Wimmer, 157-9.
 Jack Dvorak, Larry Lain and Tom Dickson, Journalism
Kids Do Better (Bloomington: ERIC Clearing House on Reading, 1994).
 Dvorak, 449-460.
 Dvorak, 19.
 Roger D. Wimmer and Joseph R. Dominick, Mass Media
Research (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1991),161.
 .Mary Arnold, "Mapping the Territory: A Conceptual
Model of Scholastic Journalism"(paper presented to the Secondary Education
Division at the AEJMC conference, August 1990).
 Publishes a column from JEA and CSPA and a book
review column in each issue.
 JEA also publishes Newswire, a newsletter that
includes most of the internal organizational news
 Only those SPR articles that deal with high school
(not those exclusively for or about the college or university student press)
 The total is less than 61 because 6 informational
articles (about changes in leadership at newspaper foundations, foundation name
changes, etc.) were also included.
 Roger D. Wimmer and Joseph R. Dominick, Mass Media
Research (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1991),161.