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Subject: AEJ 05 GalvezA MAG General Interest Magazine Language Preference among Hispanics
From: Elliott Parker <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To:AEJMC Conference Papers <[log in to unmask]>
Date:Mon, 6 Feb 2006 04:59:50 -0500
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This paper was presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and
Mass Communication in San Antonio, Texas August 2005.
         If you have questions about this paper, please contact the author
directly. If you have questions about the archives, email
rakyat [ at ] eparker.org. For an explanation of the subject line, 
send email to
[log in to unmask] with just the four words, "get help info aejmc," in the
body (drop the "").

(Feb 2006)
Thank you.
Elliott Parker
====================================================================

General Interest Magazine Language Preference among Hispanics

Anthony Galvez
Instructor
College of Mass Communications
Texas Tech University
Box 43082
Lubbock, TX 79409-3082
806-742-6500 ext. 245
[log in to unmask]


In 2003, the Census Bureau reported that one in eight people (13.3% 
of the total population) in the United States were Hispanic (Ramirez 
& de la Cruz, 2003). The growing number of Hispanics in the United 
States has caught the attention of corporate America. During the 
1990s marketers started building media franchises targeted at 
Hispanic audiences.  NBC's purchase of the Telemundo television 
network, for example, showed the growing attention given to this 
emerging demographic. The merger involving Univision, the nation's 
largest television network targeted to Hispanics, and the Hispanic 
Broadcasting Company (HBC), the nation's largest radio company 
targeted to Hispanics, also showed the value being placed on reaching 
out to Hispanics  (Ahrens & Williams, 2003). These mergers, however, 
do little to prove that Hispanic targeted media has garnered the 
power to attract major advertising revenue (Napoli, 2002). One of the 
reasons for questioning the power of one media entity to attract a 
majority of the Hispanic populations is the issue of language.  Due 
to the major differences in the Hispanic populations and due to level 
of acculturation, socio-economic status, education and country of 
origin, it has become apparent that understanding media language 
preference and the forces that drive it is critical in creating 
ethnic-specific messages. This study seeks to answer questions 
related to these types of language choices made by media channels and 
their effect on Hispanics of different acculturation levels.  To 
answer these questions, this study identified the literature related 
to acculturation and media preferences of Hispanics before testing a 
variety of propositions related to different language types and 
different acculturation levels.
Though past research (Delener & Neelankavil, 1990; Gibson, Hudson & 
Melanson, 1999; Greenberg, Burgoon, Burgoon & Korzenny, 1983; 
Hernandez & Newman, 1992; Melanson & Hudson, 1996; Rios & Gaines, 
1998; Roslow & Roslow, 1980) has looked at language preference and 
media use, little has been done to identify how to create print media 
that will grab this unique audience. Valdes (2000) argues that 
language choice, cultural nuances, habits, needs, and wants must all 
be understood before the Hispanic market can effectively be targeted. 
Simply translating English language articles into Spanish will only 
attract those readers fluent in Spanish and can often lead to 
confusion if not culturally correct (Valdes, 2000).  Furthermore, 
researchers (Gibson, Hudson & Melanson, 1999; Greenberg et al., 1983; 
Hernandez & Newman 1992; Melanson & Hudson, 1996; Rios & Gaines, 
1998) have discovered Hispanics do not always prefer Spanish language 
media.  Variables including, age, number of years in the United 
States and acculturation all play a part in language preference 
(Greenberg et al., 1983; Hernandez & Newman, 1992; Melanson & Hudson, 
1996; Rios & Gaines, 1998). To date, however, there has been no 
empirical test to determine if there is a relationship between the 
way language is presented in print and Hispanics' perceptions of 
magazine articles.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between 
language presentation style and Hispanics' perceptions of news value, 
affinity toward presenting media and understanding content. More 
specifically, magazine articles written in English, Spanish, and a 
mix of English with Spanish will be tested. Also, because previous 
research has indicated acculturation as a predictor of media language 
preference, this study will test level of acculturation as a 
predictor of magazine language preference for bilingual Hispanics.

HISPANIC MEDIA USE AND LANGUAGE PREFERENCE
Researchers have looked into Hispanic media usage and preferences 
(Delener & Neelankavil, 1990; Deshpande, Hoyer & Donthu, 1986; 
Gibson, Hudson & Melanson, 1999; Greenberg et al., 1983; Melanson & 
Hudson, 1996; Roslow & Roslow, 1980).  Media language choice has also 
been examined (Gibson, Hudson & Melanson, 1999; Greenberg et al., 
1983; Hernandez & Newman, 1992; Melanson & Hudson, 1996; Rios & 
Gaines, 1998).  Hispanic media usage and motivation has been a 
subject of research as well (Albarran & Umphrey, 1993, 
1994).  Finally, there has been research into Hispanic media usage in 
regard to its role in cultural identity maintenance (Deshpande, Hoyer 
& Donthu, 1986; Jeffres, 2000; Rios & Gaines, 1998).
Overall, previous research has indicated a complex link between 
culture, identity and media use. Language preference has also proved 
to be determinate on many different factors. This chapter will 
outline some of the variables associated with media use and language 
preferences.
Media Use
The most comprehensive study examining Hispanic media habits, to 
date, was conducted by Greenberg et al. (1983). They conducted 
telephone surveys in seven southwestern cities.  The research focused 
on eight variables:
1.	Ethnic identity and language usage.
2.	Media use and access.
3.	Media evaluations.
4.	Media functions.
5.	Sources of information.
6.	Media content preferences.
7.	Newspaper and television image.
8.	Demographics.

The surveys revealed a statistically significant difference between 
Hispanic and Anglo newspaper readership. Across the board Anglo 
respondents reported reading the newspaper more often than Hispanics. 
The research indicated no significant difference in time spent 
watching local and national television news between Hispanics and 
Anglos. Overall, Hispanics reported watching more TV than Anglos. 
There was a significant difference in the percentage of Hispanics and 
Anglos reporting to have recently read a magazine.  Only 60% of the 
Hispanics surveyed said they had read a magazine in the last week as 
opposed to 73% of Anglos. Time spent with Spanish language media was 
also gauged by the researchers.  They found Hispanics spent 29.2 
minutes a week reading Spanish language newspapers and Hispanics 
spent, on average, 43.4 minutes reading Spanish language 
magazines.  The number of minutes spent, on average, with Spanish 
language radio (557.3) and television (391.1) were much higher than 
the amount of time Anglos reported. Hispanics also reported listening 
to Spanish language tapes/records 108.1 minutes a week.
	The findings indicated Hispanics who predominately spoke Spanish 
were more likely to spend time with Spanish language 
media.  Hispanics who predominately spoke English in general 
preferred English language media. Overall, there was a trend where 
Hispanics used print media much less than Anglos and were inclined to 
watch more television. The findings suggest that media heavily laden 
with news and information (newspapers and magazines) is utilized less 
than media heavy with entertainment (television and radio).
The findings of the Greenberg et al. (1983) study were further 
validated by Delener and Neeleankavil (1990). Their findings 
indicated Hispanics preferred television over other types of 
media.  The research also indicated that Hispanics listen to the 
radio more than the rest of the population, especially when there is 
access to Spanish stations. Not surprisingly, magazine and newspaper 
usage was lower among Hispanic respondents when gauged against 
African Americans and Anglos.
The overall findings of the past research into Hispanic media usage 
indicate low usage of print media and high usage of electronic 
media.  In general the current body of research strongly suggests 
that Hispanics use radio and television more often than newspapers or 
magazines. It is still important, however, to understand which 
variables effect print media language preference.
Language Preference
Advertisers have shown great interest in minority language 
preference. Research into Hispanic language preference in 
advertising, however, has been inconclusive at best. Faber and 
O'Guinn (1991) found there was little difference in attitude toward a 
commercial or brand when Hispanics were exposed to both English and 
Spanish language advertisements. Hernandez and Newman (1992) examined 
the body of research available at that time.  They collected research 
dealing with Hispanics and broadcast media and print media.  They 
concluded that the best way to reach the Hispanic market is by 
speaking to them in their dominant language noting, level of 
acculturation plays a role in the transition from Spanish to English 
as the dominate language. Conversely, a study conducted by Koslow, 
Shamdasai, and Touchstone (1994) found advertiser's choice to use 
Spanish language copy resulted in a positive affect toward the ad.
	Researchers have also looked beyond advertising and have examined 
the general media language preferences of Hispanics.  Melanson and 
Hudson (1996) surveyed nine hundred and seventy three Hispanics in 
Texas. Questions were asked to gauge Hispanic media use and language 
preference.  The results of the survey indicated Hispanics preferred 
broadcast media.  Interestingly enough, only 20% of the respondents 
reported reading a newspaper in the previous month. Age was 
identified as an indicator of media language preference with 
Hispanics under the age of 35 reporting to speak English in the 
home.  Older respondents preferred to speak Spanish or Spanish and 
English mixed.	Ethnic identity and its effect on media language 
preference was also examined. Rios and Gaines (1998) predicted that 
low Latino heritage would mean low Spanish language media use as well 
as unfavorable attitudes towards the Spanish language.  Bilingual 
Latino heritage will produce positive attitudes towards Spanish 
language and high exposure to general media. High Latino heritage 
will use Spanish language media more often than the other two groups. 
Results of the research indicated low Latino Heritage individuals had 
a significantly less favorable attitude toward Spanish and were 
exposed less to Spanish language media.  Bicultural Latino heritage 
respondents had a more favorable attitude toward Spanish and were 
exposed to both English and Spanish language media. High Latino 
heritage respondents had high levels of exposure to Spanish language 
television and radio.  They also reported having low access to 
English language media and low use of newspapers in either language.
	One of the reasons low acculturated Hispanics prefer Spanish 
language media can be explained by Jeffres' (2000) findings that 
indicate ethnic media is a tool for cultural maintenance. A panel 
study was conducted from 1976 to 1992. Participants from the Midwest 
were given surveys every 4 years.  Thirteen ethnic groups were 
identified and utilized for the study.  The initial survey had 768 
respondents.  By 1992 the number of respondents was down to 157 due 
to issues of mortality and mobility. Ethnic media use positively 
predicted strength of ethnic identity over time.  The same was not 
true, however, for ethnic identity predicting ethnic media 
use.  Still the importance of media use as a tool for cultural 
maintenance was apparent.
While the majority of the studies have provided a wealth of 
information, most of the methodologies have been ineffective in 
validating links between changes in language and media preferences.

METHODOLOGY
	This study examined if language presentation would cause Hispanics 
to have differing opinions of the overall news value of general 
interest articles.  The relationship between language presentation 
and understandability was also tested to see if the In-Culture 
marketing approach would lead to a greater understanding of the 
articles. This study was also constructed to test if language 
presentation would cause Hispanics to experience a certain level of 
affinity with the articles presented.
Recent trends in magazines targeting Hispanics have been to: 1) use 
only Spanish text 2) use a mix of Spanish and English and 3) to print 
entire articles in both Spanish and English. According to Johnson 
(2000) publishers have for some time made available Spanish language 
versions of popular magazines (Cosmopolitan, Good Housekeeping and 
Harper's Bazaar). Magazines such as Latina and Latina Style, more 
directly marketed to Hispanics, print articles in English while 
mixing in Spanish.  At times Latina magazine will print the same 
article completely in English and then completely in Spanish.  The 
argument can be made that Spanish only publications serve Hispanics 
new to the United States and magazines utilizing a mix may be the 
mortar necessary to keep more highly acculturated Hispanics close to 
their culture (Jeffres, 2000). Nonetheless, each one of these 
language presentation styles is a different way of presenting the 
same information.  The choice to use a certain language presentation 
style is made in order to reach a certain audience and to create a 
certain affect in the reader. This study looked into the overall 
effect differing language presentation styles had upon Hispanics and 
whether an affinity was felt for the article. Language presentation 
and subject's indication of news value and understandability were 
also tested.
Acculturation refers to the process where by people from a minority 
culture blend into a dominant culture. The process of acculturation 
can be detected in changes of language, preferences and 
behaviors.  The tendency is for the minority population to take on 
some of the traits of the dominant culture.  As contact with the 
dominant culture increases so should the amount of 
acculturation.  Those individuals with a greater reliance on the 
language, preferences and behaviors of the dominant culture are said 
to be more highly acculturated than those who still show a greater 
reliance on the tenements of the country from which they immigrated.
For the purpose of this study, affinity is defined as a feeling of 
kinship or positive social relationship with an object.  It is argued 
that Spanish language and mix articles would create a bond between 
the reader and the article.  Past studies (Rios & Gaines, 1998; 
Jeffres, 2000) have identified media as a tool of cultural 
maintenance by which relationships are created between media and the 
reader. Such a bond may be similar to the bond a chef may feel with a 
trade magazine dedicated to new standards in the food industry or a 
person interested in technology and a television program dedicated to 
the diffusion of new technology.
News value was defined as the feeling of overall importance of the 
articles content. The measures newsworthy and informative were used 
to determine the articles news value.  Newsworthiness was defined as 
the articles ranking among other issues requiring attention by the 
news media. Informative was defined as the ability of the article to 
relate information to the reader.
Understandability was defined as the ability of the text to easily 
relate the intended message.  Its overall function in this research 
was to gauge if bilingual subjects would have a greater understanding 
of English or Spanish language text.  It was felt that a greater 
understanding of the text would coincide with a greater new value and 
affinity.
Another variable examined by this research was language preference. 
As previous research has shown, (Ball-Rokeach, 1985; Faber et al, 
1985; Ball-Rokeach & De Fleur, 1976) individuals approach the media 
for specific gratifications. Relationships can be developed between 
the individual and certain media.  To determine if such relationships 
can be built through type of language, preference was examined by 
this research.  By testing for language preference, this study will 
add to the previous literature, which indicates a greater reliance on 
English as acculturation increases.  Language preference was 
identified by testing the subjects' level of affinity for the article 
through measures identifying level of enjoyment and if the respondent 
found the article interesting.  Language preference was also 
identified by the respondents' feeling the article was both 
understandable and newsworthy. For the purpose of this study, 
language preference is gauged by and identified as a degree of 
newsworthiness, affinity and understandability.
Hypotheses and Research Questions
	When True et al. (2000) tested acculturation as a predictor of 
Mexican-American's perceptions of advertising they found degrees of 
acculturation can predict ad perception.  Their conclusions were that 
highly acculturated Hispanics would respond to stimuli in a similar 
fashion to Anglos.  When the advertisements were crafted so as to 
mirror the respondent's level of acculturation, he/she was more 
likely to respond positively.  Ueltschy and Krampf (1997) tested 
acculturation as a predictor of Hispanic's language and model 
preference in advertisements. Their findings revealed low 
acculturated Mexican-Americans preferred ads in Spanish.  The 
opposite was true for highly acculturated Hispanics.  They preferred 
advertisements in English.
Johnson (2000) found one of the many functions of ethnic media is to 
preserve the native culture through language and pride.  For that 
reason, the assumption can be made, those members of an ethnic 
minority still seeking a certain level of assimilation, while holding 
on to their culture, will prefer media reflecting the duality of 
their existence. Because of this duality, as well as the findings of 
Ueltschy and Krampf (1997) and True et al. (2000) the following 
research question and hypotheses were constructed:
RQ1: Is there a relationship between language presentation and a) 
news value b) affinity c) understanding of general interest magazine articles?
RQ2: Is there a relationship between level of acculturation and a) 
news value b) understanding of general interest magazine articles?
H1:  Respondents with a low level of acculturation will prefer 
general interest magazine articles written in Spanish.
H2: Respondents with a high level of acculturation will prefer 
general interest magazine articles written in English.
H3: Respondents with a middle level of acculturation will prefer 
general interest magazine articles written in both English and 
Spanish as is dictated by the concept of In-Culture marketing.

Methodology
The experiment consisted of testing levels of acculturation and 
language preference.  The overall design of the experiment was a 3 X 
3 factorial design with three levels of acculturation and three 
different language presentation styles being tested. The stimulus 
material was two sets of articles printed in Spanish, English, and 
English with Spanish words mixed in and level of acculturation. Two 
articles were used so that any effect created by the content of the 
articles would be controlled for and also because the researcher 
expected a small sample size. The dependent variables were news 
value, affinity and understandability. The stimulus material and 
questionnaire was examined by six bilingual Hispanics in order to 
determine if there were any problems with the material not previously 
identified by the researcher.   It was determined by the researcher 
to seek a higher level of external validity, than offered by a lab 
environment, by conducting an intercept survey. It should be noted, 
however, that this type of experiment will result in less external 
validity than a true field experiment in which the stimulus material 
would be tested at the location where respondents would normally be 
exposed to it.
Hispanic subjects were recruited using both, a mall intercept type 
data collection method as well as a snowball (Rios & Gaines, 1998) 
type of data collection technique in two small and two medium-sized 
west Texas cities.  Respondents were given a packet, asked to read 
two articles and fill out the attached questionnaire.
Stimuli
	The stimuli for this experiment were two articles written in a style 
consistent with general interest magazines.  The first was a travel 
article touting the merits of taking a cruise as a standard vacation 
alternative. The second article was about the demise of the payphone 
and the new era of cellular phones.
The article about cell phones was four paragraphs long with three 
hundered words.  The article about vacations was three paragraphs 
long with three hundred and seven words.  Each article was crafted so 
as to indicate that the selection was only the beginning of a larger 
article. The articles were laid out to look as if they were taken 
directly from a magazine using Quark Xpress.
A Spanish teacher at an east Texas junior high school translated each 
article into Spanish.  The articles were then reviewed and edited by 
two Mexican-Americans fluent in both English and Spanish during a 
pretest of the research instrument.  No problems were identified with 
the translation.
The mix version of the two articles was constructed based on several 
articles in the February 2003 issue of Latina.  The articles were 
identified as using In-Culture type articles because they were 
primarily written in English and had Spanish words mixed in. The 
articles were compared to other articles in the magazine and were 
judged to be typical of the general writing style presented 
throughout. The frequency of Spanish words in the articles was 
recorded.  It was determined that a Spanish word appeared on average 
once out of every 100 words.  The mix versions of the two articles 
were then constructed using the formula of Spanish to English as 
previously identified (1 per 100 words).
In all there were six different packets randomly distributed to the 
respondents.  The first packet contained both articles completely in 
English with the vacation article first and the cell phone article 
was second.  The second packet contained both articles in English but 
the order the articles appeared was reversed.  The third and forth 
packets were exact duplicates of the first two with the exception of 
the language.  Both articles in this group were written using 
primarily English with a mix of Spanish words throughout.  The fifth 
and sixth packets were identical to the first two except for the 
language used in the articles.  In this group the articles were 
written in Spanish.
Participants and Data Collection
	The population of the study was Hispanics in west Texas over the age 
of 18.  Both males and females were encouraged to participate. Of the 
two hundred and forty completed questionnaires, two hundred and 
seventeen were deemed usable for the study.
	Using a mall intercept type method, subjects for the experiment were 
first recruited at a concert celebrating Cinco de Mayo in a medium 
sized west Texas community. A table was set up and signs were hung 
indicating participants in the research could register for a 
drawing.  The winner of the drawing would win a $100 gift card 
provided by a local grocery store.  A volunteer who was not 
affiliated with the research collected the information for the 
drawing separately from the research data. All efforts were made to 
ensure there was no connection between the research and the drawing 
information.
	After looking at the initial sample size, it was determined more 
data was needed. The event was a discount night at a local theme 
park.  Once again a table was set up and respondents were given the 
opportunity to enter a drawing for a $50 gift card provided by a 
local grocery store.
	Due to a very small turn out at the second event, a third intercept 
was set up.  This time using the same incentive as the second data 
collection, participation was solicited at a local grocery store in a 
predominately Hispanic neighborhood.  Once again the level of 
participation in the experiment was low despite the incentive.
	After another look at the sample size, it became apparent more was 
needed.  A switch in strategy led to the use of the technique 
utilized by Rios and Gaines (1998).  The technique is known as 
snowball sampling.  Adult volunteers were recruited through local 
contacts of the researcher.  The packets were delivered to the 
volunteers at their places of work or at home, and the packets were 
picked up at a later date.
Research Instrument
The questionnaires for all packets were identical and were written in 
English.  Because, the focus of the survey was on bilingual 
Hispanics, the choice was made not to use both English and Spanish 
versions of the ARSMA-II scale. Also, because English-only speaking 
researchers did recruitment, testing with a Spanish version of the 
questionnaire would have created translation problems when 
administering the experiment.
At the end of each article were three questions about the article.  A 
five-point likert scale was used to gauge responses (1= I totally 
agree, 5 = I totally disagree).  Question #1 asked if the article was 
newsworthy.  Question #2 asked if the article was interesting and 
question 3 asked if the article was informative.  Four additional 
questions were asked after the second article. These questions were 
used to analyze the respondent's ability to understand the articles 
and enjoyment level.  The questions were as follows:
1.	I felt this article was newsworthy
2.	This article was interesting
3.	I felt this article was informative
4.	The article about cell phones was easy to understand.
5.	The article about cruise ships was easy to understand.
6.	I enjoyed the article about cell phones.
7.	I enjoyed the article about cruise ships.
The questions asking if the articles were newsworthy and informative 
were meant to gauge overall newsworthiness. The questions about 
enjoyment and interest were constructed to gauge affinity and the 
question asking if the article was easy to understand gauged 
understandability.
Following the questions about the articles was the 30 question 
ARSMA-II (Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans) scale 
gauging level of acculturation.  Answers were gauged using a 5-point 
likert scale with 1 being not at all and 5 being almost always. The 
ARSMA II scale, as created by Cuellar, Arnold and Maldonado (1995), 
is commonly used by researcher to rank Hispanics level of 
acculturation.  Questions are asked in regard to language 
preferences, cultural associations and self-identity. ARSMA-II tests 
language preferences with questions such as, "I speak Spanish" and "I 
enjoy watching English language television." Cultural associations 
are gauged with questions such as, "My contact with the USA has 
beenů" and "My family cooks Mexican food." An example of 
self-identity would be "I like to identify myself as Mexican 
American" and "I like to identify myself as an American."
Questions are divided into two sub-categories; the Anglo orientation 
scale (aos) and the Mexican orientation scale (mos). There are 
thirteen aos questions and 17 mos questions. A score is given for 
each category and the mos is subtracted from the aos to give a 
composite score. The score are then lumped into one of the following 
five groups:
Level I. Very Mexican oriented
Level II. Mexican oriented to approximately balanced bicultural.
Level III. Slightly Anglo oriented bicultural
Level IV. Strongly Anglo oriented
Level V. Very assimilated; Anglicized.
For the purpose of this study it was decided to regroup the 
respondents into thirds based upon their ARSMA-II score.  The groups 
were then labeled as:
	Group I: Low acculturation
  	Group II: Medium acculturation
	Group II: High acculturation
The reason for condensing the groups was to better facilitate a 3x3 
factorial design.  Also, the reduction of groups helped to account 
for problems with low participation rates. It was also decided that 
breaking the groups into absolute thirds would help to even out the 
distribution of the groups.
	At the end of the questionnaire demographic data was collected. 
Respondents were asked to identify their age, gender, religious 
preference, amount of education, where they received their education 
and generation based on how long their family has been in the United States.
RESULTS
	An analysis of the population of this study revealed a majority of 
the respondents were female (n = 129, 59.4%). Respondents ranged in 
age from 18 to 68 with a Median age of 30.  Education level of those 
responding was widely dispersed with a majority of the respondents 
reporting completion of at least grade 9 (see table 1). Of the 197 
respondents reporting where they attended school, 193 attended school 
in the United States and 4 attended school in Mexico. Generation in 
the United States was gauged revealing, a fairly even distribution 
with exception to 1st generation which was only 5.8% of those 
answering this question (see table 2). Generation was determined by 
the birthplace of the respondent's, parents and grandparents.
Utilizing SPSS, descriptive statistics were run to identify the mean 
score of the five measures used test the level of affinity, news 
value, and understanding for both articles. They were further broken 
down by type of language presented and level of acculturation (see table 3).
For the cell phone article, all acculturation levels reported that 
the Spanish version was less newsworthy. The same was also true for 
the cell phone article and the interesting measure.  As for the 
informative measure, the low acculturated group reported a lower mean 
score for the Spanish language presentation than the other two 
language presentation styles. The remaining two groups found the 
Spanish language presentation style less informative.  The mean 
scores for the understand measure and the cell phone article 
indicated that the low acculturation group found the In-Culture 
presentation style more understandable and the remaining two groups 
once again ranked the Spanish language style as being less 
understandable. Overall mean scores for the enjoy measure indicated 
that all three groups found the Spanish language version of the 
articles less enjoyable.
For the Cruise article similar trends were revealed.  Respondents in 
the low and middle acculturation groups reported a lower mean score 
for the English and In-Culture articles than for the Spanish.  Those 
respondents in the high acculturation group found the In-Culture 
version to be less newsworthy. The low acculturated group found the 
In-Culture presentation style to be less interesting and the medium 
and high acculturation group found the Spanish version to be less 
interesting. All three levels of acculturation reported that the 
Spanish language presentation was less informative. The same trend 
was also seen with all three acculturation groups reporting that the 
Spanish language presentation was less understandable. And for the 
enjoyable measure all three groups reported a higher mean score for 
the Spanish language presentation.
Within the ANOVA model, repeated measures within subjects were run to 
identify any interaction or main effect between the two story 
scenarios.  There was no effect found between the two story scenarios 
for all measures except for the Informative measure.  A 
Student-Newman-Kuels (SNK) post hoc test revealed that for the cell 
phone article there was a difference between the Spanish and English 
versions of the articles but no difference between the mix version of 
the article and the Spanish and the English versions of the articles. 
For the cruise article there was a statistically significant 
difference between the Spanish version of the articles and the mix 
and English versions but no difference between the mix and English 
versions of the articles. Because there was no effect found for the 
remaining measures, subsequent analysis was performed by running 
ANOVAs on the collapsed data of the two articles with the exception 
of the informative measure.  The stimulus material was not collapsed 
into a single group for analyzing the informative measure.
RQ1: Is there a relationship between language presentation and a) 
news value b) affinity c) understanding of general interest magazine articles?
A relationship was found between language presentation and news 
value. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference 
between type of language presented and respondents reporting that the 
are articles newsworthy F(2, 207) = 7.49, p = .001 (see table 4). An 
SNK post hoc test revealed the significant difference was between the 
Spanish language version of the article and English articles as well 
as the mix version of the articles. Mean scores indicated that 
respondents found both the mix version and the English version more 
newsworthy than the Spanish version. There was no difference, 
however, between the English version and the mix version of the articles.
For the cell phone article there was no significant difference F(2, 
319) = 2.31 p = .102 found between the English, Spanish and mixed 
language versions of the stimuli and respondents finding the article 
informative. The cruise article, however, did show a statistically 
significant difference between the different versions of the articles 
and informative (see table 3). Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) post hoc 
test revealed the difference for informative was between the Spanish 
language articles and the English language article with no difference 
between the mix article and Spanish or English. A look at the mean 
scores for the cruise article indicated that respondents found the 
English language version of the article more informative than the 
Spanish version but not significantly more informative than the mix version.
As for affinity, there was a statistically significant difference 
between language presentation and respondents finding the article 
interesting F(2, 215) = 6.16, p = .003 (see table 5) and respondents 
finding the article enjoyable F(2, 217) = 12.81, p = .001 (see table 
6). Once again a SNK post hoc test showed the difference was between 
the Spanish language articles and both the English language articles 
and mix articles. For both measures, mean scores indicated that low 
acculturated Hispanics preferred the mix version to the English 
version. Mean scores also indicated that the respondents had a 
greater affinity towards the English and mix than towards the Spanish 
version of the articles.
There was also a statistically significant difference between 
language presentation and understandability F(2, 307) = 10.13 p = 
.001 (see table 7).  An SNK post hoc test indicated the difference 
for understandability was between the Spanish language articles and 
both the English language and In-Culture articles.
RQ2: Is there a relationship between level of acculturation and a) 
news value b) understanding of general interest magazine articles?
Overall, for RQ2 there was no statistical difference found between 
level of acculturation and rating of the articles news value. The 
measure for newsworthy was not statistically significant F(2, 207) = 
.00, p = .993. Looking at the articles individually, for the 
informative measure and the cell phone article there was no 
significant difference F(2, 319) = .26, p = .772.  For the cruise 
article there was also no difference F(2, 306) = 1.47, p = .993. 
There was also no statistically significant difference for level of 
understanding (F(2, 307) = .97 p = .380) in general interest magazine 
articles. It was not expected that a difference in level of 
acculturation would result in a lower news value rating because of 
the overall general nature of the articles presented.
H1:  Respondents with a low level of acculturation will prefer 
general interest magazine articles written in Spanish.
H1 was not supported by the data analysis.  Analysis[1] revealed no 
statistically significant difference between level of acculturation 
and affinity for the articles presented. Affinity was measured by 
testing the interest measure (F(2, 215) = 1.57, p = .210) or the 
enjoyment measure F(2, 217) = 1.49, p = .228. It was predicted that 
Hispanics ranked in the lower level of acculturation would prefer 
Spanish language articles. Overall, low acculturated Hispanics ranked 
their enjoyment (see table 8) and interest (see table 9) of all three 
versions of the articles in the middle.
H2: Respondents with a high level of acculturation will prefer 
general interest magazine articles written in English.
H2 was also not supported by the data analysis. It was predicted that 
a higher level of acculturation would result in higher affinity 
towards English language articles.  Analysis revealed highly 
acculturated Hispanics did not have a greater affinity for the 
English language articles based on the interest measure (F(2, 215) = 
1.57, p = .210) or the enjoyment measure (F(2, 217) = 1.49, p = .228) 
used to gauge affinity.
H3: Respondents with a middle level of acculturation will prefer 
general interest magazine articles written in both English and 
Spanish as is dictated by the concept of In-Culture marketing.
There was no evidence to support H3.  Respondents in the middle 
acculturation group showed no greater preference for the mixed 
language articles based on the interest measure (F(2, 215) = 1.57, p 
= .210) or the enjoyment measure (F(2, 217) = 1.49, p = .228) used to 
gauge affinity.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The data analysis revealed that there was a relationship between 
language presentation and how Hispanics rank the news value, affinity 
and understandability of general interest magazine 
articles.  Subjects were more favorable to the articles written in 
English and the mix of English and Spanish (In-Culture). These 
findings were consistent with previous studies (Melanson, Hudson & 
Watts, 1995; Melanson & Hudson, 1996) that have identified English as 
the language of choice for many Hispanics.  For all three measures, 
the preference was for the articles in English and in English and 
Spanish mixed (mix). Respondents consistently had a negative opinion 
toward the Spanish only articles.
When breaking down the measures used for testing news value (news 
worthy and Informative), one inconsistency did appear.  For the 
Informative measure, there was a statistically significant difference 
between how respondents ranked the English and mix articles, and how 
they ranked the Spanish only version for the cruise article, which 
was consistent with the all other measures.  For the cell phone 
article, however, the difference appeared between the Spanish and the 
English version of the article and not between the mix and the other 
two articles. In other words respondents felt that the English 
version of the cell phone article was more informative than the 
Spanish version. The mix version, however, was not ranked either more 
or less informative than the English and Spanish versions of the 
article.   This difference for the cell phone article may be 
explained by taking a look at the time period in which the study took 
place.  During the time of the study, legislation had been passed 
allowing for cell phone users to switch service providers with out 
loosing their current cell phone number. The change in the 
regulations had received a large amount of press thus leading to a 
lower perception of the stories informative value. Nonetheless, 
overall mean scores indicated that medium and highly acculturated 
Hispanics felt the cell phone article in Spanish was less 
informative.  Low acculturated Hispanics, ranked the mix cell phone 
article lowest.   These findings indicate that when magazine 
publishers attempt to reach the Hispanic audience they may want to 
reevaluate their own perceived notions of the news value of Spanish 
and mix article.  If seeking to gain the attention of those Hispanics 
who only speak or read Spanish, however, there is still no 
alternative to Spanish language text.
For the purpose of this study, affinity was defined as a liking 
and/or an inclination towards an object.  Utilizing the enjoy and 
interesting measures as an indication of affinity, the data revealed 
that there was a statistically significant difference between the 
Spanish language version of the articles and the English and mixed 
language articles.  People of all levels of acculturation reported 
that they found the Spanish version less interesting than the mixed 
language and English version of the articles.  The same trend emerged 
for the enjoy measure. The implications of these findings suggest 
that print media written in English and mixed language will receive a 
greater affinity from the Hispanic community.  These findings, 
however, can only be generalized to the bilingual community.
For the understand measure, respondents reported that the Spanish 
language version was not as understandable as the English and mixed 
language versions of the articles.  Mean score showed that low and 
high acculturated Hispanics reported a higher level of understanding 
for the mixed language than the English language version. Yet there 
was no statistically significant difference between the two language types.
As for the use of the In-Culture marketing approach to creating media 
intended for the Hispanic market, though the findings indicated no 
statistically significant difference between the mixed language and 
English versions of the articles, overall the mean scores reported 
for medium and high acculturation subjects indicated that Hispanics 
found the mixed language articles less newsworthy, understandable and 
had less of an affinity towards them.  The differences of mean 
scores, though not statistically significant, do little to support 
the idea that using Spanish words mixed into a predominantly English 
text will create an article more attractive to Hispanics.
	Overall, little evidence was found to support previous research 
(Rios & Gaines, 1998; Ueltschy & Krampf, 1997) indicating level of 
acculturation could predict language preference.  The assumption was 
that those Hispanics reporting a lower level of acculturation would 
prefer Spanish language media and those with a higher level of 
acculturation would prefer English language media. The lack of 
support for the previous acculturation studies may be due to the fact 
that this study did not include Hispanics who only spoke Spanish. The 
vary nature of this study was to find out the preference of bilingual 
Hispanics.  These findings did, however, support the previous 
research (Hernandez & Newman, 1992) indicating that the best language 
to use when marketing to Hispanics is the language they are most 
comfortable with.
Acculturation's Role in Preference
	For the editors and publishers, the findings of this study suggests 
that when trying to reach the bilingual Hispanics, level of 
acculturation may only play a small role in language 
preference.  Once a certain level of English proficiency is achieved 
by Hispanics, print media in English and/or mixed language can be 
relied upon to get the message across. Print media predominantly in 
Spanish, however, will have a negative effect on the bilingual 
Hispanic audience. And as the data showed there may be little 
incentive for publishers to seek out the In-Culture marketing method 
for print media.
Limitations of the Study
	One of the greatest limitations of this study was the inability of 
the researcher to sample the population of Hispanics who only speak 
Spanish or who have a very limited grasp of the English language.  By 
using only the English version of the ARSMA- II questionnaire it was 
impossible to get the responses of the Spanish language only 
population. The purpose of this study was to get a sense of what the 
bilingual Hispanic population would prefer.  After all we know that 
those who can only understand Spanish text would prefer it to any 
other language.
Overall, Hispanics were reluctant to participate in the study.  The 
snowball method of recruitment was used when it became apparent that 
the intercept method was not working. Where as the snowball method 
proved to be more effective, it was also much more time 
consuming.  Because of this limitation the data was collected over an 
eight month period of time. The snowball method of data collection 
also limits the overall randomness of the sample.
Future Research
	There has been a great deal of research looking into media portrayal 
of Hispanics, media preference and media language preference.  To 
date, however, there have been few studies examining the 
effectiveness of In-Culture marketing towards Hispanics.  Future 
efforts should be made to empirically test the overall effectiveness 
of In-Culture marketing.  Research should also be conducted to test 
how In-Culture marketing is received by different subsets of the 
Hispanic community, such as the Puerto Ricans, Cubans and South 
Americans. Qualitative research should also be conducted to better 
define the best method for creating the In-Culture marketing message.
	As the Hispanic population in the United States continues to grow, 
so should research into reaching this critical audience.  Continued 
research into the Hispanic segment of our society can only help in 
the diffusion of important political, health and social messages.















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Table 1. Distribution of Education Level of Respondents.

Grade level                Frequency         Percent         Valid 
Percent          Cumulative

Elem-6                             4                   1.8 
          1.9                          1.9
7-8                                 10 	            4.6 
4.6	            6.5
9-12	              93	           42.9	          43.1	          49.5
1-2 yrs college		  60		 27.6		 27.8		        77.3
3-4 yrs college		  22		 10.1                 10.2                        87.5
Graduate/higher	27	12.4		 12.5         	      100.0
Total			216		 99.5		100.0


Table 2. Generation in the United States.


Generation		Frequency	Percent		Valid Percent	     Cumulative
1st 			12		5.5		5.8			5.8
2nd			43		19.8		20.8			26.6
3rd			46		21.2		22.2			48.8
4th			48		22.1		23.2			72.0
5th			58		26.7		28.0			100.0
Total			217






Table 3. Means of Measures for Language Presentation and Acculturation.	


	                       Article 
Language                                   Level of 
Acculturation 


   		  Spanish             Mix           English              Low 
        Mix         High

Cell article

Newsworthy 	3.17(1.23)	2.68(1.24)	2.40(1.15)	2.80(1.28)	2.82(1.32)	2.63(1.12)

Interesting	3.14(1.23)	2.61(1.12)	2.60(1.12)	2.69(1.18)	2.96(1.29)	2.72(1.09)

Informative	2.97(1.33)	2.72(1.21)	2.58(1.26)	2.76(1.36)	2.85(1.28)	2.66(1.18)

Understand	2.83(1.43)	2.04(1.30)	2.33(1.39)	2.26(1.33)	2.49(1.39)	2.25(1.44)

Enjoy	3.29(1.25)	2.36(1.09)	2.56(1.16)	2.71(1.18)	2.80(1.35)	2.67(1.17)

Cruise article

Newsworthy 	3.40(1.22)	3.07(1.15)	2.85(1.32)	3.13(1.29)	3.00(1.32)	3.18(1.25)

Interesting	3.26(1.32)	2.80(1.14)	2.71(1.33)	2.91(1.29)	3.06(1.33)	2.79(1.23)

Informative	3.36(1.29)	2.93(1.10)	2.74(1.30)	2.97(1.27)	2.87(1.27)	3.17(1.23)

Understand	2.96(1.31)	2.19(1.29)	2.33(1.39)	2.43(1.39)	2.63(1.27)	2.41(1.44)

Enjoy	3.41(1.17)	2.86(1.13)	2.68(1.29)	2.85(1.32)	3.09(1.19)	3.01(1.18)
				

Note. Numbers in parenthesis are standard deviations. (1 = I totally 
agree, 5 = I totally disagree)





Table 4.  Mean Distributions of Acculturation and Language for 
Newsworthy Collapsed.	

			 Mean                                   SD	                           N

		Spanish  Mix  English      Spanish  Mix  English 	Spanish  Mix  English

Acculturation

Low			3.17 	   2.74	2.88	1.07	  .95	1.07	32	17	21

Medium	3.50	2.85	2.50	1.04	1.10	1.10	20	23	24

High	3.26	3.04	2.54	1.15	  .92	  .78	17	27	27

Note. (1 = I totally agree, 5 = I totally disagree)





Table 5.  Mean Distributions of Acculturation and Language for 
Interesting Collapsed.		
			 Mean                                    SD 
              N

		Spanish  Mix  English      Spanish  Mix  English 	Spanish  Mix  English

Acculturation

Low			2.95	   2.62	2.76	1.05	  .91	1.19	32	17	21

Medium	3.50	3.02	2.69	1.22	  .95	1.18	20	23	24

High	3.29	2.61	2.54	1.15	  .77	  .92	17	28	27

Note. (1 = I totally agree, 5 = I totally disagree)








Table 6.  Mean Distributions of Acculturation and Language for Enjoy 
Collapsed.		
			 Mean                                    SD	                             N

		Spanish  Mix  English      Spanish  Mix  English 	Spanish  Mix  English

Acculturation

Low			3.19 	   2.34	2.55	1.13	  .93	1.06	32	19	21

Medium	3.48	2.76	2.72	  .97	  .95	1.30	20	27	23

High	3.47	2.66	2.59	1.13	  .78	  .93	18	28	27
Note. (1 = I totally agree, 5 = I totally disagree)




Table 7.  Mean Distributions of Acculturation and Language for 
Understand Collapsed.	

			 Mean                                    SD 
              N

		Spanish  Mix  English      Spanish  Mix  English 	Spanish  Mix  English

Acculturation

Low			2.45 	   2.11	2.40	1.25	1.26	1.22	32	19	21

Medium	3.27	2.46	2.08	1.11	1.17	1.18	20	27	24

High	3.25	1.79	2.26	1.30	  .99	1.46	18	28	27

Note. (1 = I totally agree, 5 = I totally disagree)


[1]  The results of H1, H2 and H3 were based on the analysis of the 
interest and enjoyment measures. The F values for all three are, 
therefore, the same. 

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