Lifting as we climb: An analysis of the National Association Notes and its
role in helping the National Association of Colored Women achieve its
By Dulcie M. Straughan, Ph.D.
School of Journalism and Mass Communication
University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
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Submitted to the History Division, AEJMC, Annual convention, August 2002,
Title: "Lifting as we climb: The role of the National Association Notes in
furthering the issues agenda of the National Association of Colored Women,
This paper examines the role of the National Association Notes, the
official publication of the National Association of Colored Women, in
helping both to further the issues agenda of the organization and to build
a sense of unity among its members. This paper analyzes stories from the
first 20 years of the publication and identifies six major themes, or issue
topics, that appeared in The Notes over the 20-year period.
"Lifting as we climb"
"Lifting as we climb: The role of the National Association Notes in
furthering the issues agenda of the National Association of Colored Women,
"We, the Colored Women of the United States of America, feeling the need of
united and sympathetic effort, and hoping to furnish evidence of the moral,
mental and material progress made by our people, do hereby unite in a
National Association." --- Preamble, Constitution of the National
Association of Colored Women, 1897.
More than 100 Black women met in Boston, Mass., in late July 1896 to
discuss the feasibility of forming a national organization for Black
women. All of the women in attendance were middle-class, well educated and
active in their communities; some were members of local and regional
organizations dedicated to advancing their race. The result of that July
meeting was the formation of the National Association of Colored Women a
year later. As Hamilton states, the unwritten goal of the organization was
to complete the work of emancipation . . . "the right of Black people to
live lives of middle-class respectability."1
The impetus for forming the NACW was twofold: The General Federation of
Women's Clubs, which had formally organized in 1892, did not welcome Black
women into their organization.2 Secondly, Mrs. Josephine St. Pierre
Ruffin, a Black woman and founder of the Woman's Era Club of Boston, called
on Black women to unite in response to a vicious attack by James W. Jacks,
president of the Missouri Press Association. In an effort to discredit the
work of Ida B. Wells, a Black journalist and reformer active in trying to
establish anti-lynching laws in the United States, Jacks published an
article denouncing Black people, but especially Black women, whom he called
prostitutes, thieves and liars. His article caused an outcry in the press,
particularly among the Black community.
Mrs. Ruffin organized the Boston conference, in part to respond to Jacks'
charges. In a letter that she sent to Black women who were active in
various organizations, Mrs. Ruffin said, "…it is our right and our bounden
duty to stand forth and declare ourselves and principles to teach an
ignorant and suspicious world that our aims and interests are identical
with those of all good aspiring women."3
Mrs. Ruffin's call to gather was answered by women from 10 states and more
than 20 clubs. The conference of Black women met in Boston on July 29, 20
and 31, 1896. In her keynote address to the gathering, Mrs. Ruffin stated:
All over America there is to be found a large and growing class
of earnest, intelligent, progressive colored women who, if not
leading full, useful lives, are only waiting for the opportunity to do
Conferees at the three-day conference heard speeches, discussed papers and
conferred on formally organizing an umbrella organization for existing
Black women's organizations. At the conference, the need for unity among
individual groups was stressed, in order to have a strong parent
organization. Conference speaker M.F. Pitts of St. Louis, who said that the
aim of such a national organization was "race advancement," told conferees
"Women must stand by each other, trusting and believing not only
in the honesty but the ability of their sisters, as never before…We must
try to bring about freedom for the women because it will elevate them
politically, socially, financially and morally. For in the coming education
of the masses she will need all her freedom to preserve her best interests
and the best interests of the home and family."5
While some scholars have examined the role of the women's club movement in
the United States, particularly during the Progressive Era, more recently,
other researchers have studied the role of the NACW as part of that
movement. As Jones notes, the NACW was similar to the General Federation of
Women's Clubs in that "both organizations provided social services to the
community and worked for the betterment of the situation of women," but the
NACW also worked to make the lives of Black Americans better. 6 In
addition to the issue of racial betterment, other scholars have examined
various factors that had an impact on the formation of the NACW and on the
directions it took, including the role of the Black church in providing
leadership experience for women, women's suffrage and temperance movements;
the influence of the Victorian ideal of womanhood; and political issues of
the day that related directly to Black Americans, such as the imposition of
Jim Crow laws in a number of Southern states.7
This study adds to previous work through an in-depth analysis of the first
20 years of The National Association Notes, the official publication of the
NACW. This analysis uses as its foundation the concept of agenda melding.
According to Shaw et al., individuals join groups, also termed communities,
because there are rewards "of belonging and sharing and because they (the
groups) remove the dissonance of living in an environment of uninterpreted
events." Furthermore, groups organize around agendas, which "may
represent ways of seeing things, ways of doing things, or other unique ways
of relating to the world." And all groups have agendas of issues, some
formal, some more loosely structured. "If an individual decides to relate
to an amorphous public group, such as belonging to the local 'community' or
becoming an informed voter, then the individual is likely to choose a mass
media pathway" to identify with and learn about that group. "But if the
individual decides to join a public or private group not covered by the
news media, then the pathway may involve other individuals, newsletters, or
other specialized media."9
As the NACW's official publication, The National Association Notes served
as the organization's primary mode of communication for members and
potential members. As such, it also represents the lens through which the
organization's agenda of issues may be viewed. Specifically, this study
addresses the following research questions:
1. What were the major issues, or themes, addressed by the organization
through The National Association Notes?
2. Did the issues, or themes, change over the 20-year period under study?
3. Did the issues, or themes, reflect and/or serve to reinforce the stated
goals of the NACW?
The Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., has the largest, most complete
collection of The National Association Notes, copies of which are available
on microfilm. Hard copies were made of the available issues over the
20-year period of study.
The author examined each story in every available issue of the publication
during the 20-year period under study, beginning with the second issue,
published on May 15, 1897, and ending with the April-May 1917 issue. Some
issues for the period under study were missing; other issues had missing
pages. None of the issues for 1903, 1905, 1906 or 1907 were available.
The study employed qualitative content analysis methods; each story was
read for content and informal categories were created as stories with
similar topics were found. All stories also were coded for date, issue
number, headline and topic. As the author became familiar with the stories,
six major themes emerged. These themes will be examined in greater detail
later in the paper. A brief description of the founding of The National
Association Notes, its stated purpose, physical description and general
content areas will be provided first.
Founding The National Association Notes
When the NACW was formally organized in 1897, one of newly elected
president Mary Church Terrell's first acts was to establish a publication
for organization members. Terrell saw the publication as essential to
helping create and strengthen the communication network among its members.
The monthly publication was used "to channel information about the programs
and objectives of the organization."9
The National Association Notes published its first issue in 1897. It was a
four-page tabloid printed on newsprint until 1904, when it changed its look
to a bound, journal-size publication with pictures. In its journal form, it
typically consisted of 16 pages, although a few issues were smaller than
that. During the 20-year period that this study examined, the publication
had only three different editors. Some of the stories were written by the
editors; other items were sent in by club members. The publication also
reprinted articles from a variety of newspapers and magazines. Many issues
contained one or two poems or literary quotations. The publication did run
some small advertisements, beginning in 1904.
Generally, story topics ranged from discussions of social issues of the
day, to reports of individual club activities, personal notes of interest
to club members, and scholarly papers on a variety of topics, including
women's suffrage, temperance, Jim Crow railroad car laws and public health.
Also covered heavily were news stories about the organization's biennial
conferences. In fact, some issues were devoted entirely to coverage of the
conferences. These story topics will be discussed in greater detail, within
the context of the major themes that appeared in the publication.
"Lifting as we climb" theme
One of the stated goals of the NACW was to help those less fortunate
members of the race advance. The founding members of the national
organization were all educated, middle-class women who, according to
Dickson, accepted the "prevailing Victorian image of the proper role of
women to uplift, purify and adorn."10
The phrase "lifting as we climb" appeared regularly on The National
Association Notes masthead; this phrase was taken from the organization's
song. The chorus says: Deeds not words shall be our motto, we're lifting as
we climb." As one member said, she was part of "a movement that reaches
down into the sub-social condition of the entire race and has become the
responsibility and effort of a few competent in behalf of the many
This aspect of the NACW was a recurring theme in stories throughout the
first 20 years of the publication, but most particularly, in the first few
years. For example, a story in the May 15, 1897, issue titled, "Home
influences among the colored people," spoke to the importance of a
wholesome family life to success in later life. The article stated that
many Black people had poor family homes. "This disadvantage, like many
others, may be traced to disabilities growing out of past bondage. Slavery
was a poor training place for the making of homes." The solution to this,
according to the author, was to "send missionary teachers among
them—earnest, whole-souled, self-sacrificing workers who will not be
satisfied with simply teaching in their school rooms the learning of books,
but who will go in and out among the families and teach the men and women
how to better their homes, how to raise the tone of their domestic
A story in a later issue emphasized the importance of education to Black
people in helping them to succeed. Indeed, the establishment of
kindergartens was one of the organization's recurring items on their
organization's yearly platform. The story spoke of the need to establish
kindergartens in communities and urged local clubs to get involved in
sponsoring school programs:
"If the National Association did nothing but arouse our sisters throughout the
country to the necessity of providing for the education and civilization
of the thousands of poor, neglected children, who, without our aid, will
remain in ignorance and be reared in crime, it would more than justify its
existence as an organization."13 The story went on to suggest that
individual clubs could start pilot programs in education, and then build on
the success of the smaller programs. "…we should leave no stone unturned to
make the men and women of the next generation, who are the children of
to-day, as intelligent, as virtuous and as courageous as possible."
Furthermore, the author of the story said, "All little folks, irrespective
of conditions of race, need the training that the kindergarten affords, but
none so imperatively as the children of our own despised and persecuted
The NACW formed departments within its organization in the early 1900s; one
such department was titled Rescue Work. The department's name itself
alludes to the members' role in rescuing or lifting up of those less
fortunate. Many issues of The National Notes reported on work that various
local and regional clubs were doing to help improve the lives of Black
people. A report by the Rescue Work department about work done by various
clubs across the country included information about the establishment of
two kindergartens in Georgia, work with the prison systems in two southern
states to improve sanitation there and to provide books for prisoners, and
help with "those in the thralldom of the cocaine habit."15
One aim of the NACW once it was more fully established was to involve more
young women in the organization. A story in the May 1913 issue suggests
that the NACW form a young women's department. The story reiterates the
importance of imbuing young women with a sense of duty to those less
fortunate. "Because when young girls are organized, their vision becomes
wider; they discover in themselves new possibilities; new spiritual, moral
and intellectual forces, and they lift others of their age, as they
A major theme in several stories in the NACW publication over the years
was that of inclusiveness, particularly as it related to joining together
with women of other races. The December 1899 lead story considered the
benefits of the NACW becoming a part of the National Council of Women, an
organization whose members were almost all white. The article's author
states that the NACW should join, "because we are American women and the
council exists to promote the welfare of all women of the country. We shall
be better understood, and, we trust, more highly esteemed, by the people of
other races and nations, if we are given opportunities to work in sympathy
with them, rather than be left out of their plans altogether."17 She
concluded that by becoming a member of the council, the races would learn
valuable lessons from each other. "Ignorance of each other is at the bottom
of the prejudice existing between the races."
In 1901, the NACW joined the National Council of Women. The January 1901
issue of The National Notes contains a letter from Mary Terrell, president
of the NACW, telling members about the importance of joining together with
other women. "The NACW has been baptized into fellowship with the National
Council of Women by the tears of our sisters of the more favored race, and
feeling confident that the bond of union between the white women and the
colored women of this country has been greatly strengthened thereby."18
Later stories that appeared in the publication re-emphasized the symbolic
importance of the NACW's inclusion in the National Council of Women. One
story noted that their membership in the organization gave women of the
NACW hope that working together would reduce racial prejudice. An article
in 1911 stated: "We seem to be happily approaching the time when in the
large and all-inclusive questions of human interests there will be no room
for prejudice, and when we can so lose ourselves in the pursuit of service
for all men, women and children as to forget the superficial lines of
That optimistic note was somewhat tempered two years later, when some
members of the National Council of Women objected to the organization's
leaders opening its doors to black women. Delegates from the NACW who had
attended the Council's annual meeting in Washington, D.C., heard that some
members of the Council did not attend the meeting in protest over the
NACW's inclusion. The executive committee of the Council held firm to their
stand on extending membership to the NACW, however. A story in the June
1913 issue of The National Notes by Mrs. Josephine Bruce, president of the
NACW and a speaker at the National Council's convention, said: "I made the
delegates and audience understand that the colored women were responsive to
the same ideals; that they see the needs of humanity with the same eyes,
and that they are giving their strength—physical, more and spiritual—toward
solving the same problems that occupy the minds of our sister women
throughout the land; and though laboring under many difficulties, colored
women are fully abreast in the struggle to raise the level of life
generally, and to open up opportunities of usefulness for our people."20
The theme of inclusiveness also manifests itself in the NACW's recognition
of, and support for, working together with churches to advance their cause.
As Fannie Barrier Williams, a founding member and leader in the NACW, noted
in 1900, "The training which first enabled colored women to organize and
successfully carry on club work was originally obtained in church
work."21 There was concern among some community members and church
leaders that, with the growth of women's organizations, women would turn
away from their church work. A number of stories in The National
Association Notes speak to that issue. In fact, one story recommended that
churches and women's clubs form an alliance of sorts, so that both could
In a story in one of the early issues in 1899, the president of the NACW
urged women to attend the organization's biennial convention in Chicago and
enlisted the aid of church ministers. "If our ministers, all over the
country, would preach at least one sermon on the work the NACW has done and
is trying to do, it would aid materially in making our convention a
success." Noting that, "our women bear the heaviest burdens of the church
work, it is especially fitting that the church, through the pastor, should
come to our assistance, whenever it can consistently and conscientiously do
so."22 A later story titled, "How can we as women advance the standing
of the race?" states that the two greatest agencies of human improvement
are the church and the state. With the growth of women's clubs and
organized charities, the article said, more could be done to aid
Righting social wrongs theme
The organization also was concerned with righting social and legal wrongs.
Some of these social ills were related to issues of race, such as Jim Crow
laws in a number of southern states; others had to do with gender. The
organization, through The National Association Notes, took an active stance
in both areas.
One issue that was discussed in numerous articles had to do with Jim Crow
laws relating to rail travel. Salem and Coleman, among other scholars, said
that the beginning of the 20th Century marked a time of worsening race
relations and the imposition of laws in some states to segregate the races.
And, as Coleman argues, "Resistance to segregated public transportation was
one of the first legal battles Black females chose to fight as free
women."24 This was an issue that many members of the NACW had to face
every time they traveled to NACW conventions, for example. The September
1897 issue told of South Carolina's successful effort to pass a law that
required black and white travelers to sit in separate railroad cars. While
second-class white and black travelers traveled together in the same car,
white and black first-class passengers were separated. First-class black
passengers had to pay higher ticket rates for inferior accommodations. The
story urged members to boycott rail travel.
A later story that appeared in the August 1899 issue, reached out to all
women to work to have the law repealed.
"We appeal to the Loyal Women of the United States to unite with us in urging
the abolition of this oppressive measure from the statutes of the
and that the officers and directors of the railroads affected by Color
in justice to the self-respecting traveling class be urged to provide FIRST
SECOND CLASS CARS. This so-called law is a blot most foul, not only on the
section boasting of it chivalric treatment of women, but inhuman and unjust
loyal, patriotic Negro women of the country, especially to the NACW, whose
object is the development of Negro womanhood."25
Unfortunately, the Jim Crow rail laws were still a story topic in 1916.
In the October issue of The National Association Notes, in an article
titled, "Declaration of Principles Adopted at the Baltimore convention, one
resolution reported on was that which called for the NACW to publicly
denounce "all forms of discrimination in travel solely on account of color,
as a disgrace to the American sense of justice and fair play."26
The issue of women's suffrage was raised in nearly every issue of the
publication, but the number of articles increased significantly after 1910,
when the push for suffrage by numerous women's organizations grew more
intense. One example of a story from an earlier issue that discussed
woman's future position in the world, asks rhetorically what a woman wants.
"She simply wants to be a human being, not a slave, not a toy, not a queen.
She wants the equal personal liberty that every man demands in order to
become a fully developed, well-balanced, happy and useful being. Only this
and nothing more."27
A May 1901 article discussed in detail the issue of woman suffrage.
Claiming that the time was ripe for passing legislation that would grant
women suffrage, the article stated that suffrage "is one thing that will go
a great way toward removing injustice and oppression."28
As the push for women's suffrage grew more intense, more stories appeared
that urged women to get more involved in the fight. A story in the October
1916 issue stated: "No Negro woman can afford to be an indifferent
spectator of the social, moral, religious, economic and uplift problems
that are agitated around us."29 And a story titled "The Awakening of
Women," which appeared in the January 1917 issue, told readers that women
everywhere were fighting for suffrage. "Our interest in this fight is quite
as vital as that of any other woman."30
Advancing the race: Black Woman as Role Model theme
One very prevalent theme throughout the 20 years of the publication
examined in this study was that of informing readers of the many strong and
accomplished Black women who were also members of the NACW. Indeed, Fannie
Williams, an NACW leader, considered one of her vital roles in the
organization to change the perceptions of some Black men and women alike
that they were not relatives of slaves, but rather part of a "great nation
and great civilization."31 Each issue had at least one story about a
prominent Black woman. Many of these stories were short items that had been
sent in by readers of the publication; others were reprints of articles
that had appeared in other publications. Two examples of short items
include a story of a "colored sculptress" –an American who lived in Rome
and was visiting the United States. The story noted that she had been
educated at Oberlin and Radcliff. Another short item concerned a wedding
announcement; the bride, the story said, was the first female pension
attorney in Washington, D.C. 31
The lead story in the July 1904 issue is a feature about Josephine
Silone-Yates, the newly elected president of the NACW. The article, which
is a reprint from the Indianapolis World, identifies Mrs. Yates as "one of
the leading women of her race."32
Other articles feature in-depth pieces on notable Black women who were
actively involved in the NACW. One such story, titled "Colored women in the
reform movement," featured Julia Layton and Mrs. Booker T. Washington,
among others. The reporter states: "As I review the work of the women of my
race during the past 80 years, I see 'nobly done' written above their
The Victorian Ideal: Woman's self-improvement theme
Although much of the publication covered issues relevant to Black women as
members of the female sex, members of the African-American race, or as club
members, there were a significant number of articles that dealt with
self-improvement as well. As mentioned earlier, according to some scholars,
the Victorian ideal of womanhood was a motivating factor for Black
middle-class women of the day. Some of these articles concerned personal
appearance, such as one called "The Morning Toilet," about how a woman
should dress nicely in the morning so that her husband and children could
see her at her best.34 Other stories dealt with the importance of
reading good literature, rather than "common books," the need for young
girls to be modest in dress as well as actions, and the need to involve
young daughters in decorating their rooms.35 Many issues also included
poetry, sayings or quotations, and reprints of scholarly papers that club
members had presented at conventions.
In Unity there is Strength theme
One very evident theme in The National Association Notes, particularly in
the first few years of the NACW's existence, was that of unity. In a number
of early issues of the publication, stories pointed out that The National
Association Notes served as the major unifying force for the fledgling
organization. For example, the February 1902 issue includes a letter from
Josephine Yates, newly elected president of the NACW. Mrs. Yates noted that
the organization now had federations, which had the potential to help the
organization reach greater heights in their work. "In union lies our
greatest strength, hence with great interest we view the amount of
effective organization that is being done by our women, and the wonders it
is working in all parts of our land." Her letter went on to mention
projects being carried out by a number of different organizations, now
allied in regional federations. But she stressed the increased importance
in keeping lines of communication open. "It is necessary that the women of
the various states come in closer touch with each, that we know more of
each other, understand more fully our common aims and purposes—and nothing
can do this more effectively than a good, strong national organ; hence let
us support The Notes with our subscription and patronage and in every other
Unity within the organization could also be achieved through dialogue
between the national office and its member organizations. One vehicle for
this was the publication. In the July 1904 issue, the lead article stressed
the importance of the national office to the success of all the member
clubs. "The National stands as the teacher and helper of the local clubs,
just as it expects to be taught and helped by the local clubs…between the
two there is an interchange of strength and opinion which makes for a
successful effort in both.37
Additionally, there were a number of letters to the editor over the years,
stressing the importance of The National Association Notes in keeping
members informed about what was happening outside their own clubs. One
reader wrote: "I thank you for continuing my paper. It keeps alive the
inspiration for unity in club work."38
The National Notes served as a unifying force in the formative period of
the organization and also during the expansion of the NACW, by keeping
Black women informed about what other individuals and groups were doing to
"advance the race," but, more importantly, giving Black women a sense of
belonging and pride in their accomplishments. The newsletter served as the
primary vehicle to advance the issues agenda of the organization. By doing
so, it increased the ties among Black women from across the country, who
learned that women in Kansas were concerned about the same kinds of issues
as women in South Carolina, or women in Maryland. The publication also gave
hope to the idea that, with effort and by working together, racial
prejudice could be reduced.
The major themes present in the publication over the years reflected to a
great degree both the organization's goals and the concerns and issues of
the day. For example, while unity within the organization was an important
theme in early issues of the publication—and a necessity in order for the
organization to grow and prosper—the unity theme grew less important as
other issues arose.
Similarly, the theme of righting social wrongs, while always present to
some degree, became more prominent in the latter part of this study's
20-year span of time. This was particularly true in relation to women's
suffrage. There was a greater frequency of articles about suffrage as the
years passed, and further, the articles stressed the importance of the
issue to all women, whether Black or White. In a sense, NACW leaders were
urging members to meld with other groups to provide support to the fight
for women's rights.
Furthermore, articles that appeared from 1915 to 1917 were much more
forceful in demanding equal rights for women. In a story that seems to
foreshadow arguments in favor of the Equal Rights Amendment by feminists in
the 1960s and '70s in the United States, the author states: "Men ask where
is woman's place now that she has moved into these spheres. I would say
that woman's place is where good is to be accomplished; whether at home, in
the school-room, in the halls of state, by the couch of the dying, on the
battlefields, in the prison, anywhere and everywhere."39
In the case of Jim Crow laws, while the publication increased the awareness
of group members who might not have experienced directly the sting of
discrimination in rail travel, its call to all women to fight to end the
racist laws was not as successful in the short term. It did, however, keep
the topic on the organization's issues agenda. Stories about Jim Crow laws,
particularly as they related to rail travel, continued throughout the
issues under study.
The publication also succeeded in giving members the opportunity to read
about Black women who had succeeded and continued to have a positive impact
on the advancement of Black women. By publishing success stories about
Black women, whether they were short items in the "Personal" section, or
more in-depth articles about the organization's leaders, Black women, young
and old, could take pride in their accomplishments and hope for the
future. Not only that, readers of The Notes had the opportunity to read
numerous articles written by NACW leaders, all of whom were successful in
their own right. The organization also began to widen its sphere of
influence to young girls as well, by adding chapters for young women and by
covering their activities in The Notes.
By 1917, the NACW had 17 different departments, 29 state federations, more
than 10,000 member clubs under its umbrella and an individual membership of
more than 200,000. It had achieved spectacular growth, along with
recognition from other organizations and individuals. In this sense, the
publication played a key role in laying out an issues agenda for the
organization and reporting on the organization's progress in working on
Hamilton states that by the mid-1920s, the NACW began to lose some of its
power, due primarily to financial drain. Also, individual states or large
philanthropic groups were beginning to handle some of the organization's
project areas, particularly those involving social welfare.40 Yet
during its first 20 years as an organization, The National Association
Notes helped the organization maintain its stated purpose: "In a word, it
must be the purpose of us all to assist in lifting mankind to a higher
plane by helping push humanity upward and forward in the march of
1 Tullia Kay Brown Hamilton, "The National Association of Colored Women,
1896-1920," (unpublished dissertation, Emory University, 1978), 32.
 2 Ibid. 6.
 3 Ibid., 30.
 4 1895 Conference proceedings, Mary Church Terrell collection, National
Association of Colored Women's Clubs, Library of Congress, Microfilm
collection, Reel 1.
 5 1895 Conference proceedings, LOC, Reel 1.
 6 Beverly Washington Jones, "Quest for Equality: The Life and Writings
of Mary Eliza Church Terrell, 1863-1954." In Black Women in United States
History, Vol. 13, 19.
7 Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, "Righteous Discontent: The Coming of Age of
the Black Baptist Sisterhood," Wilson Jeremiah Moses, "Domestic Feminism
Conservatism, Sex Roles, and Black Women's Clubs, 1893-1896," In Black
Women in United States History, Vol. 3, 959-970; Ruby M. Kendrick, "They
Also Serve: The National Association of Colored Women, Inc. In Black Women
in United States History, Vol. 7, 817-824; Lynda F. Dickson, "Toward a
Broader Angle of Vision in Uncovering Women's History: Black Women's Clubs
Revisited." In Black Women in United States History, Vol. 9, 103-119; Willi
Coleman, "Black Women and Segregated Public Transportation: Ninety Years of
Resistance." In Black Women in United States History, Vol. 5, 295-302.
Dorothy Salem, "Black Women in Organized Reform." In Black Women in United
States History, Vol. 14.
 Shaw, D. L., McCombs, M., Weaver, D. H., & Hamm, B. J., "Individuals,
Groups, and Agenda Melding: A theory of social dissonance," International
Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 11, No. 1.
9 Shaw, McCombs, Weaver and Hamm, "Individuals, Groups, and Agenda
Melding," p. 11.
9Jones, "The Quest for Equality," 22.
10 Dickson, "Toward a Broader Angle of Vision," 115.
11 Fannie Williams, quoted in Hamilton, "The National Association of
Colored Women," 31.
12 National Association Notes, Vol. 1, No.2, May 15, 1897, 2.
13 National Association Notes, Vol. 2, Jan. 1899, 1.
 14 Ibid.
 15 Ibid.
 16 National Association Notes, Vol. 16, May 1913, 13.
 17 National Association Notes, Vol. 3, Dec. 1899, 1.
 18 National Association Notes, Vol. 14, Jan. 1901.
 19 National Association Notes, Vol. 15, Dec. 1911, 1.
 20 National Association Notes, Vol. 16, June 1913, 4.
 21 "The Black Church: A Gender Perspective, 17.
 22 National Association Notes, Vol. 3, June 1899, 2.
 23 National Association Notes, Vol. 7, July 1904, 10.
 24 Coleman, "Black Women and Segregated Public Transportation, 295.
 25 National Association Notes, Vol. 3, June 1899, 3.
 26 National Association Notes, Vol. 18, Oct. 1916.
 27 National Association Notes, Vol. 1, Sept. 1897, 3.
 28 National Association Notes, Vol. 4, May 1901, 1.
 29 National Association Notes, Vol. 18, Oct. 1916.
 30 National Association Notes, Vol. 19, Jan. 1917, 1.
 31 Moses, "Domestic Feminism Conservatism," 967.
 31 National Association Notes, Vol. 2, Jan. 1899, 2.
 32 National Association Notes, Vol. 7, July 1904, 1
 33 National Association Notes, Vol. 2, Jan. 1899, 4.
 34 National Association Notes, Vol. 2, Jan. 1899, 4.
 35 National Association Notes, Vol. 15, Jan. 1912, Vol. 16, May 1913.
 36 National Association Notes, Vol. 5, Feb. 1902, 1
 37 National Association Notes, Vol. 7, July 1904, 1.
 38 National Association Notes, Vol. 15, Feb. 1912.
39 National Association Notes, Vol. 18, May-June 1915.
40 Hamilton, "The National Association of Colored Women," 137.
41 National Association Notes, Vol. 18, Oct. 1916.